An anatomic, radiographic, and biomechanical assessment of extrapedicular screw fixation in the thoracic spine.

@article{Dvorak1993AnAR,
  title={An anatomic, radiographic, and biomechanical assessment of extrapedicular screw fixation in the thoracic spine.},
  author={Marcel F. Dvorak and Sarah L. MacDonald and Kevin Roger Gurr and Stewart I. Bailey and Raymond G Haddad},
  journal={Spine},
  year={1993},
  volume={18 12},
  pages={1689-94}
}
This study performed a thorough review of the pertinent thoracic spine anatomy to determine the appropriate landmarks for extrapedicular screw placement and indentified the anatomic structures at risk; assessed the safety and accuracy of the newly proposed screw insertion technique; determined the stability and strength of this new screw position through biomechanical testing; and analyzed the stability of this extrapedicular screw location with respect to bone mineral density of the vertebra. 

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