Chromobacterium violaceum Pathogenicity: Updates and Insights from Genome Sequencing of Novel Chromobacterium Species
Chromobacterium violaceum is an environmental Gram-negative bacterium that is common in soil and water in tropical and sub-tropical regions. It is also a model organism for studying quorum-sensing and is a rare but deadly human pathogen. Recent completion of the genome sequence of C. violaceum strain ATCC 12472 revealed the presence of genes associated with type-III secretion systems (TTSSs). One of these systems resembles the Spi-1 system found in Salmonella enterica, whereas another is similar to the Spi-2 system from the same organism. Here, we present a detailed analysis and a fresh annotation of the two gene clusters. Moreover, we highlight the presence of several genes encoding putative type-III effector proteins that lead us to predict that this organism can manipulate vesicular trafficking, the actin cytoskeleton and apoptotic pathways within mammalian cells to its own advantage.