# An alternative closed-form solution to the GPS pseudo-range equations

@article{Leva1995AnAC, title={An alternative closed-form solution to the GPS pseudo-range equations}, author={Joseph L. Leva}, journal={IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems}, year={1995}, volume={32}, pages={1430-1439} }

In the four satellite Global Positioning System (GPS) problem, the system of pseudo-range equations is shown to be equivalent to a system of two linear equations together with a range difference and pseudo-range equation. The formulation represents the user's position as the intersection of two planes and a hyperbola branch of revolution. The formulation is three-dimensional and includes almost all degenerate and special case geometries. It provides geometric insight into the characteristics of…

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