An active transport system in the blood-brain barrier may reduce levodopa availability.

@article{Hawkins2005AnAT,
  title={An active transport system in the blood-brain barrier may reduce levodopa availability.},
  author={Richard R. Hawkins and Ashwini S. Mokashi and Ian A. Simpson},
  journal={Experimental neurology},
  year={2005},
  volume={195 1},
  pages={267-71}
}
Levodopa, the primary drug used to treat patients with Parkinson's disease, is transported into the brain by the facilitative amino acid transporter (L1). We present here an unanticipated discovery: levodopa may be pumped out of the brain by a Na(+)-dependent transport system that couples the naturally occurring Na(+) gradient existing between the brain's extracellular fluid and the cytoplasm of capillary endothelial cells. The activity of this system reduces the net availability of levodopa. 

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