An Update of Wallace’s Zoogeographic Regions of the World

  title={An Update of Wallace’s Zoogeographic Regions of the World},
  author={Ben G. Holt and Jean‐Philippe Lessard and Michael Krabbe Borregaard and Susanne A. Fritz and Miguel Bastos Ara{\'u}jo and Dimitar Dimitrov and Pierre‐Henri Fabre and Catherine H. Graham and Gary R. Graves and Knud Andreas J{\o}nsson and David Nogu{\'e}s-Bravo and Zhiheng Wang and Robert J. Whittaker and Jon Fjelds{\aa} and Carsten Rahbek},
  pages={74 - 78}
Next-Generation Biogeography In 1876, Alfred Russel Wallace mapped the zoogeographical regions of the world, based on the distributions and taxonomic relationships of broadly defined mammalian families. Wallace's classification of zoogeographical regions became a cornerstone of modern biogeography and a reference for a wide variety of biological disciplines, including global biodiversity and conservation sciences. Holt et al. (p. 74, published online 20 December) present a next-generation map… 

Biogeographic Patterns of South American Anurans

South America has undergone complex environmental and geological events that ultimately made it the most climatically and biodiverse continent on the planet, including anuran amphibians. Though

Zoogeographical regions and geospatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity and endemism of New World bats

Differences in regionalisation across families indicate that niche conservatism, in situ diversification and dispersal ability are major drivers for the regionalisation of New World bats, within a dual‐centre of diversification scenario.

Phylogenetic delineation of regional biota: A case study of the Chinese flora.

The dichotomy of the modern bioregionalization revival

Differences in these two approaches – general areagrams versus distributional models – are demonstrated in bioregionalizations and definitions of the Australian and the Neotropical regions.

An updated phylogenetic bioregionalization for the European fern flora

This study draws on an exhaustive distribution dataset including all fern species and subspecies of Europe as well as a nearly complete molecular phylogeny to define fern phyloregions based on their phylogenetic relatedness, and quantified the degree of specificity of individual phylogenetic clades to the phyloreGions using a new index of geographical confinement based on phylogenetic diversity.

An updated phylogenetic bioregionalization for the European fern flora

This study draws on an exhaustive distribution dataset including all fern species and subspecies of Europe, as well as a nearly complete molecular phylogeny, to define fern phyloregions based on their phylogenetic relatedness, and elucidate the identity of the clades that ultimately shaped the bioregion, which might otherwise had remained obscure.

Analysis of endemism of world arthropod distribution data supports biogeographic regions and many established subdivisions

The results show that data from global databases can be used to identify areas of endemism on a worldwide basis but—owing to their incompleteness—only at a relatively coarse level.

A global phylogenetic regionalization of vascular plants reveals a deep split between Gondwanan and Laurasian biotas

The integration of phylogenetic information provided new insights into the historical relationships among phytogeographical units, enabling the identification of three large, clearly differentiated biotas, here referred to as kingdoms: Holarctic, Holotropical, and Austral.

Phylogenetic diversity, types of endemism and the evolutionary history of New World bats

The results indicate that Central America and southern North America played important roles in the diversification of New World bats, as did the Andes in the diversity of Vespertilionidae in South America.

Global biogeographic regions in a human-dominated world: the case of human diseases

Since the work of Alfred Russel Wallace, biologists have sought to divide the world into biogeographic regions that reflect the history of continents and evolution. These divisions not only guide

The World's Zoogeographical Regions Confirmed by Cross-Taxon Analyses

The world's zoogeographical regions were historically defined on an intuitive basis, with no or a limited amount of analytical testing; the resulting regions were described in terms of vertebrate diversity and characteristic taxa.

Molecular Phylogenetic Relationships Among the Wood Warblers ( Parulidae ) and Historical Biogeography in the Caribbean Basin

Abstract.—Although diversification and adaptive radiation of birds on archipelagoes have served as exemplars of the evolutionary process, prior attention has focused on the avifauna of the Hawaiian

Phylogeny and biogeographical history of Trogoniformes, a pantropical bird order

Support for the basal relationships among trogons is examined using a combination of nuclear (RAG-1) and mitochondrial (ND2) DNA sequence data, which implies an origin and early vicariance events for the crown clade in the New World.


The resulting phylogeny indicates a rapid initial spread of the genus to occupy most of its contemporary continental range at least as far south as lower Mesoamerica, plus Hawaii and the Greater Antilles and a further example of the importance of the Andes in the diversification of Neotropical birds.

Speciation in African Forest Robins (Stiphrornis): Species Limits, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Molecular Biogeography

The monotypic genus Stiphrornis is revised under a phylogenetic species concept to include four species, one of which, from the southwest Central African Republic, is new, and the notion that patterns of geographic variation in the lowland forests of West and Central Africa are still incompletely understood is reinforced.


Vicariance seems to be the major mode of isolation that favored allopatric speciation in the curassows, and the diversification of curassow seems to have occurred from the Middle Miocene to the end of the Pliocene.

Global patterns of diversification in the history of modern amphibians

A phylogenetic timetree based on a multigene data set of 3.75 kb for 171 species reveals several episodes of accelerated amphibian diversification, which do not fit models of gradual lineage accumulation.