An Optical Atmospheric Phenomenon Observed in 1670 over the City of Astrakhan Was Not a Mid-Latitude Aurora

@article{Usoskin2016AnOA,
  title={An Optical Atmospheric Phenomenon Observed in 1670 over the City of Astrakhan Was Not a Mid-Latitude Aurora},
  author={Ilya G. Usoskin and Gennady A. Kovaltsov and Lyudmila N. Mishina and D. Sokoloff and Jos{\'e} Manuel Vaquero},
  journal={Solar Physics},
  year={2016},
  volume={292},
  pages={1-8}
}
It has recently been claimed (Zolotova and Ponyavin Solar Phys., 291, 2869, 2016; ZP16 henceforth) that a mid-latitude optical phenomenon, which took place over the city of Astrakhan in July 1670, according to Russian chronicles, were a strong aurora borealis. If this were true, it would imply a very strong or even severe geomagnetic storm during the quietest part of the Maunder minimum. However, as we argue in this article, this conclusion is erroneous and caused by a misinterpretation of the… 
An early mid-latitude aurora observed by Rozier (Béziers, 1780)
Abstract. Aurorae Observations are an uncommon phenomenon at low latitudes that, at the end of the 18th century was not well known and understood. Low latitude Aurorae observations provide
An Early Low Latitude Aurora Observed by Rozier (Beziers, 1780)
Aurora observations are an uncommon phenomenon at low and mid latitudes that, at the end of the 18th century, were not well known and understood. Low and mid geomagnetic latitude aurora observations
A possible case of sporadic aurora observed at Rio de Janeiro
Being footprints of major magnetic storms and hence major solar eruptions, mid- to low-latitude aurorae have been one of the pathways to understand solar–terrestrial environments. However, it has
Intense Geomagnetic Storm during Maunder Minimum Possibly by a Quiescent Filament Eruption
The sun occasionally undergoes the so-called grand minima, in which its magnetic activity, measured by the number of sunspots, is suppressed for decades. The most prominent grand minima, since the
The Celestial Sign in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 770s: Insights on Contemporary Solar Activity
The anomalous concentration of radiocarbon in 774/775 attracted intense discussion on its origin, including the possible extreme solar event(s) exceeding any events in observational history.
Great “Space Weather Events” in March 1653 and September 1672 Were Not Supported With Simultaneous/Clustering Auroral Observations During the Maunder Minimum
The solar activity has been significantly weakened during the Maunder Minimum (MM: 1645–1715), whereas it has been somewhat controversial to reconstruct the actual solar-activity magnitude and the
Candidate Auroral Observations Indicating a Major Solar–Terrestrial Storm in 1680: Implication for Space Weather Events during the Maunder Minimum
The Maunder Minimum (MM; 1645–1715) is currently considered the only grand minimum within telescopic sunspot observations since 1610. During this epoch, the Sun was extremely quiet and unusually free
Sporadic auroras near the geomagnetic equator: in the Philippines, on 27 October 1856
Abstract. While low-latitude auroral displays are normally considered to be a manifestation of magnetic storms of considerable size, Silverman (2003, JGR, 108, A4) reported numerous “sporadic
Provenance of the cross sign of 806 in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: a possible lunar halo over continental Europe?
Abstract. While graphical records of astronomical/meteorological events before telescopic observations are of particular interest, they have frequently undergone multiple instances of copying and may
The Earliest Candidates of Auroral Observations in Assyrian Astrological Reports: Insights on Solar Activity around 660 BCE
Auroral records found in historical archives and cosmogenic isotopes found in natural archives have served as sound proxies of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs),
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 31 REFERENCES
The Maunder minimum (1645–1715) was indeed a grand minimum: A reassessment of multiple datasets
Aims. Although the time of the Maunder minimum (1645–1715) is widely known as a period of extremely low solar activity, it is still being debated whether solar activity during that period might have
The Maunder Minimum: A reappraisal
A number of papers have questioned the reality of the Maunder Minimum of solar activity (A.D. 1645–1715). A recent study by Xu and Jiang (1982) of newly-discovered Chinese provincial records listing
How Deep Was the Maunder Minimum?
One of the most enigmatic features of the solar history is the Maunder minimum (MM). We analyze reports of solar observers from the group-sunspot-number database. Particular attention is given to
THE MAUNDER MINIMUM IS NOT AS GRAND AS IT SEEMED TO BE
The Maunder Minimum (MM), which occurred between 1645 and 1715, is mainly known as an almost spotless period on the Sun. We analyze the nominal number of sunspot groups for each observer
Level and length of cyclic solar activity during the Maunder minimum as deduced from the active day statistics
Aims. The Maunder minimum (MM) of greatly reduced solar activity took place in 1645‐1715, but the exact level of sunspot activity is uncertain as based, to a large extent, on historical gener ic
Sunspot Observations During the Maunder Minimum from the Correspondence of John Flamsteed
We compile and analyze the sunspot observations made by John Flamsteed for the period 1672 – 1703, which corresponds to the second part of the Maunder Minimum. They appear in the correspondence of
Long-Term Trends and Gleissberg Cycles in Aurora Borealis Records (1600 – 2015)
The long-term spatial and temporal variation of aurora borealis events from 1600 to the present were studied using catalogues and other records of these phenomena. Geographic and geomagnetic
Solar activity during the Holocene: the Hallstatt cycle and its consequence for grand minima and maxima
Cosmogenic isotopes provide the only quantitative proxy for analyzing the long-term solar variability over a centennial timescale. While essential progress has been achieved in both measurements and
Revisited Sunspot Data: A New Scenario for the Onset of the Maunder Minimum
The Maunder minimum forms an archetype for the Grand minima, and detailed knowledge of its temporal development has important consequences for the solar dynamo theory dealing with long-term solar
...
...