An Optical Atmospheric Phenomenon Observed in 1670 over the City of Astrakhan Was Not a Mid-Latitude Aurora

  title={An Optical Atmospheric Phenomenon Observed in 1670 over the City of Astrakhan Was Not a Mid-Latitude Aurora},
  author={Ilya G. Usoskin and Gennady A. Kovaltsov and Lyudmila N. Mishina and D. Sokoloff and Jos{\'e} Manuel Vaquero},
  journal={Solar Physics},
It has recently been claimed (Zolotova and Ponyavin Solar Phys., 291, 2869, 2016; ZP16 henceforth) that a mid-latitude optical phenomenon, which took place over the city of Astrakhan in July 1670, according to Russian chronicles, were a strong aurora borealis. If this were true, it would imply a very strong or even severe geomagnetic storm during the quietest part of the Maunder minimum. However, as we argue in this article, this conclusion is erroneous and caused by a misinterpretation of the… 
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