An Objective Measure of Splitting in Parental Alienation: The Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire

  title={An Objective Measure of Splitting in Parental Alienation: The Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire},
  author={William Bernet and Nilgun Gregory and Kathleen M. Reay and Ronald P Rohner},
  journal={Journal of Forensic Sciences},
Both clinicians and forensic practitioners should distinguish parental alienation (rejection of a parent without legitimate justification) from other reasons for contact refusal. Alienated children—who were not abused—often engage in splitting and lack ambivalence with respect to the rejected parent; children who were maltreated usually perceive the abusive parent in an ambivalent manner. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire… Expand
Measuring the Difference Between Parental Alienation and Parental Estrangement: The PARQ‐Gap
The PARQ‐Gap may be useful for both clinicians and forensic practitioners in evaluating children of separating and divorced parents when there is a concern about the possible diagnosis of parental alienation. Expand
MMPI-2 Profiles of Mothers Engaged in Parental Alienation
Parental alienation (PA) describes a family dynamic in which a parent engages in behaviors that are likely to foster a child’s unjustified rejection of the other parent. PA is considered a particularExpand
Exploring Parent–Child Relationships in Alienated versus Neglected/Emotionally Abused Children using the Bene‐Anthony Family Relations Test
Children subject to parental alienation dynamics often present with psychological splitting and lack the ambivalence towards their parents which can be observed in other groups of children, evenExpand
Commentary on: An objective measure of splitting in parental alienation: the Parental Acceptance‐Rejection Questionnaire. J Forensic Sci Epub 2017 Aug 17
  • V. Puppo
  • Medicine
  • Journal of forensic sciences
  • 2018
Clinicians and forensic practitioners must not consider the Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire for the diagnosis of parental alienation because PAS is not a disease and the resort to PAS in courts must be rejected. Expand
Parental alienation is a phenomenon that appears after the divorce or break-up in a situation, where there is high conflict between the separating parents accompanying the termination of theExpand
When evaluators get it wrong: False positive IDs and parental alienation.
Allegations that a parent has manipulated a child to turn against the other parent raise complex issues challenging child custody evaluators, expert witnesses, and courts. A key issue relates toExpand
Parental Alienation: The Blossoming of a Field of Study
Parental alienation has been an unacknowledged and poorly understood form of family violence. Research on parental alienation and the behaviors that cause it has evolved out of decades of legal andExpand
Parental Alienating Behaviors: An Unacknowledged Form of Family Violence
The result of this review highlights how the societal denial of parental alienation has been like the historical social and political denial of abuse in many parts of the world (e.g., child abuse a century ago). Expand
U.S. child custody outcomes in cases involving parental alienation and abuse allegations: what do the data show?
ABSTRACT Family court and abuse professionals have long been polarized over the use of parental alienation claims to discredit a mother alleging that the father has been abusive or is unsafe for theExpand
Reliability and validity of the four-factor model of parental alienation
According to the four-factor model of parental alienation, in order for alienation to be present there must be: (1) a prior positive relationship between the child and the now rejected parent; (2)Expand


Denial of ambivalence as a hallmark of parental alienation
Abstract Parental alienation is a construct which describes a campaign of disenfranchisement from children on the part of one parent against another, particularly during divorce. It has been at theExpand
A Stepwise Approach to Evaluating Children for Parental Alienation Syndrome
ABSTRACT Parental alienation syndrome continues to be a term that is widely used in child custody conflicts but which is also controversial. Previous authors have defined the term but have notExpand
Relationships between perceived parental acceptance-rejection, psychological adjustment, and substance abuse among young adults.
Results of the research show that both perceived paternal and maternal rejection in childhood tend to be significantly higher among substance abusers than among nonabusers, and substance abusers are more impaired in their current psychological adjustment than are nonab users. Expand
Child Affected by Parental Relationship Distress.
CAPRD, like other relational problems, provides a way to define key relationship patterns that appear to lead to or exacerbate adverse mental health outcomes, and deserves the attention of clinicians who work with youth, as well as researchers assessing environmental inputs to common mental health problems. Expand
Perceived Parental Acceptance‐Rejection and Psychological Adjustment: A Meta‐Analysis of Cross‐Cultural and Intracultural Studies
Meta-analytic procedures were used to pool information from 43 studies worldwide to test one of the major postulates of parental acceptance-rejection theory (PARTheory). Specifically, using child andExpand
THE ALIENATED CHILD:A Reformulation of Parental Alienation Syndrome
In this article, controversies and problems with parental alienation syndrome are discussed. A reformulation focusing on the alienated child is proposed, and these children are clearly distinguishedExpand
In-depth child custody evaluations can be critical in forming an accurate understanding of families in which alienation of children is a concern. By integrating interview and psychological test dataExpand
Perceived paternal and maternal acceptance and rural African American and European American youths' psychological adjustment
Key Words: African American fathers, children's psychological adjustment, paternal acceptance. This study explores the following question: Are rural African American and European American youths'Expand
Family Reflections: A Promising Therapeutic Program Designed to Treat Severely Alienated Children and Their Family System
The Family Reflections Reunification Program (FRRP), specifically designed to treat severely alienated children and their family system, demonstrates a 95% success rate in re-establishing and maintaining a relationship between children and once-rejected parents. Expand
Recent Trends in Divorce and Custody Litigation
During the last six to seven years there has been a burgeoning of child custody litigation. This has been the result of two important changes in child custody determinations. The first relates to theExpand