An M Dwarf’s Chromosphere, Corona, and Wind Connection via Nonlinear Alfvén Waves

@article{Sakaue2021AnMD,
  title={An M Dwarf’s Chromosphere, Corona, and Wind Connection via Nonlinear Alfv{\'e}n Waves},
  author={Takahito Sakaue and Kazunari Shibata},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2021},
  volume={919}
}
An M dwarf’s atmosphere is expected to be highly magnetized. The magnetic energy can be responsible for heating the stellar chromosphere and corona and driving the stellar wind. The nonlinear propagation of Alfvén waves is a promising mechanism for both heating the stellar atmosphere and driving the stellar wind. Based on this Alfvén wave scenario, we carried out a 1D compressive magnetohydrodynamic simulation to reproduce the stellar atmospheres and winds of TRAPPIST-1, Proxima Centauri, YZ… 
Role of Longitudinal Waves in Alfvén-wave-driven Solar Wind
We revisit the role of longitudinal waves in driving the solar wind. We study how the p-mode-like vertical oscillation on the photosphere affects the properties of solar winds in the framework of

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