An Isolated Stellar-mass Black Hole Detected through Astrometric Microlensing

@article{Sahu2022AnIS,
  title={An Isolated Stellar-mass Black Hole Detected through Astrometric Microlensing},
  author={Kailash C. Sahu and Jay Anderson and Stefano Casertano and Howard E. Bond and Andrzej Udalski and Martin Dominik and Annalisa Calamida and Andrea Bellini and Thomas M. Brown and Marina Rejkuba and Varun Bajaj and No{\'e} Kains and Henry C. Ferguson and Chris L. Fryer and Ph. Yock and Przemek Mr{\'o}z and Szymon Kozłowski and Paweł Pietrukowicz and Radek Poleski and Jan Skowron and Igor Soszyński and Michał K. Szymański and Krzysztof Ulaczyk and Lukasz Wyrzykowski and Jean Philippe Beaulieu and Jean Baptiste Marquette and Andrew A. Cole and Kym Hill and Stefan W. Dieters and Ch. Coutures and Dijana Dominis-Prester and Etienne Bachelet and John W Menzies and Michael D. Albrow and Karen Pollard and A. Gould and Jennifer C. Yee and William Allen and Leonardo A. Almeida and Grant W. Christie and John Drummond and Avishay Gal-yam and Evgeny Gorbikov and Francisco Jablonski and Chung-Uk Lee and Dan Maoz and Ilan Manulis and J. Mccormick and Tim Natusch and Richard W. Pogge and Yossi Shvartzvald and Uffe G. J{\o}rgensen and Khalid Alsubai and Michael I. Andersen and Valerio Bozza and Sebastiano Calchi Novati and Tobias C. Hinse and M. Hundertmark and T.-O. Husser and Eamonn Kerins and Pen{\'e}lope Longa-Pe{\~n}a and Luigi Mancini and Matthew T. Penny and Sohrab Rahvar and D. Ricci and Sedighe Sajadian and Jesper F. Skottfelt and Colin Snodgrass and John Southworth and J Tregloan-Reed and Joachim Wambsganss and O. Wertz and Yiannis Tsapras and Rachel A. Street and Daniel M. Bramich and Keith D. Horne and Iain A. Steele STScI and Psu and University of Warsaw and University of St. Andrews and Eső and Univ. of British Columbia and Los Alamons Nat. Lab. and University of Auckland and University of Warwick and 1 Univ. Tasmania and Iap Paris and Univ. Bordeaux and Natsuyama Japan and Las Cumbres Obs. and Saao and South Africa and University of Canterbury and New Zealand. and Max-Planck-Inst. and Heidelberg and Ohio State Univ. and Cfa and Cambridge and Vintage Lane Obs and Universidad de Valencia and Spain and Auckland Obs. New Zealand and Possum Obs. New Zealand and Univ. Southern Queensland and Australia. and Weizmann Inst of Sci and Israel and Tel Aviv Univ. and K. A. Wills Astron and Sp Sci Institute and Weizmann Inst of Sci and Farm Cove Obs and Irasr and University of Copenhagen and Denmark and Qeeri and Doha and Qatar and University of Salerno and Italy and Istit. Naz. Fis. Nucl. and Napoli and Ipac and Pasadena and Inst. Astron. and Toruń and Poland and Chungnam Nat. Univ. and South Korea and University of Heidelberg and H Germany and University of Gottingen and Jodrell Bank Centre Astroph. and Manchester and UK. and Universidad de Antofagasta and Chile. and University of Rome and -INAF and Turin and Louisiana State Univ. and Baton Rouge and Usa and Sharif Univ. of Tech and Tehran and Iran and Padova and Isfahan Univ. Tech. and Isfahan and Open University and Milton Keynes and University of Edinburgh and Keele Univ. and Staffordshire and Universidad de Atacama and Universit'e de Liege and Belgium and Nyu Abu Dhabi and Uae and Liverpool John Moores Univ. and Ogle Collaboration and PLANETRoboNET Collaboration and microFUN Collaboration and MiNDSTEp Consortium and RoboNet Collaboration},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2022},
  volume={933}
}
We report the first unambiguous detection and mass measurement of an isolated stellar-mass black hole (BH). We used the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to carry out precise astrometry of the source star of the long-duration (t E ≃ 270 days), high-magnification microlensing event MOA-2011-BLG-191/OGLE-2011-BLG-0462 (hereafter designated as MOA-11-191/OGLE-11-462), in the direction of the Galactic bulge. HST imaging, conducted at eight epochs over an interval of 6 yr, reveals a clear relativistic… 

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