An Inexpensive BRDF Model for Physically‐based Rendering

  title={An Inexpensive BRDF Model for Physically‐based Rendering},
  author={Christopher M. Schlick},
  journal={Computer Graphics Forum},
  • C. Schlick
  • Published 1 August 1994
  • Physics
  • Computer Graphics Forum
A new BRDF model is presented which can be viewed as an kind of intermediary model between empirism and theory. Main results of physics are observed (energy conservation, reciprocity rule, microfacet theory) and numerous phenomena involved in light reflection are accounted for, in a physically plausible way (incoherent and coherent reflection, spectrum modifications, anisotropy, self‐shadowing, multiple surface and subsurface reflection, differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous… 
Microfacet Based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function
In computer graphics, analytical physically based specular BRDFs are most often expressed by a surface distribution function and a Fresnel term. In some cases a geometric attenuation factor is
Hierarchical Reconstruction of BRDFs using Locally Supported Functions
A new solution which uses locally supported functions that lead to a hierarchical approach able to take irregular distributions of sampled data into account is proposed, not computationally expensive and guarantees a physically valid reconstruction.
Distribution-based BRDFs
The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) formalism is commonly used in computer graphics to represent surface reflection properties. Although many BRDF models have been proposed,
A New Ward BRDF Model with Bounded Albedo
It is shown that the proposed BRDF is better suited for fitting measured reflectance data of a linoleum floor used in a real‐world building than the Ward and the Ward‐Dür model.
Grand Challenges in BSDF Measurement and Modeling
The problem of finding a general solution for efficient BSDF measurement and representation is addressed and the main issues that do not allow the effective use of current BSDF representations are outlined.
A practical shading model for ray tracing
This report outlines a shading model that attempts to deal with material properties of 3D objects, and presents a collection of base material types that exposes only a few, but powerful, parameters for artists to work with.
A Composite BRDF Model for Hazy Gloss
We introduce a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model for the rendering of materials that exhibit hazy reflections, whereby the specular reflections appear to be flanked by a
A BRDF Postprocess to Integrate Porosity on Rendered Surfaces
A more complete surface micro-geometry description is presented, suitable for some common surface defects, including porosity and micro-cracks; both of them are crucial surface features since they strongly influence light reflection properties.
Construction interactive de BRDFs par simulation 2D de micro-géométries en couches multiples
Complex reflection models, with their many parameters, some of which are not intuitive at all, are difficult to control when trying to achieve a desired appearance. Moreover, even if an artist can
A Practical , Comprehensive Light Reflection Model
A new comprehensive reflectance model is presented, for the first time, that accounts for both surface and subsurface local light scattering and compares favorably against extensive, detailed reflectance measurements.


Physically based lighting calculations for computer graphics
Realistic image generation is presented in a theoretical formulation that builds from previous work on the rendering equation. Previous and new solution techniques for the global illumination are
Measuring and modeling anisotropic reflection
A new device for measuring the spatial reflectancedistributions of surfaces is introduced, along with a new mathematical model of sniaorropic reflectance, which is both simple and accurate, permitting efficient reflectance data reduction in production.
Reflection from layered surfaces due to subsurface scattering
This paper presents a model for subsurface scattering in layered surfaces in terms of one-dimensional linear transport theory, and derives explicit formulas for backscattering and transmission that can be directly incorporated in most rendering systems, and a general Monte Carlo method that is easily added to a ray tracer.
Models of light reflection for computer synthesized pictures
A more accurate function for the generation of hilights which is based on some experimental measurements of how light reflects from real surfaces is presented, which differs from previous models in that the intensity of the hilight changes with the direction of the light source.
A Reflectance Model for Computer Graphics
A new reflectance model for rendering computer synthesized images that describes the directional distribution of the reflected light and a color shift that occurs as the reflectance changes with incidence angle is presented.
A Survey of Shading and Reflectance Models
This paper is a new survey of shading and reflectance models, including the most recent models, and some original models are proposed, which attempt to include interesting features of previous disjointed work into new formulations.
A model for anisotropic reflection
This model can be implemented easily within most rendering system, given a suitable mechanism to define and alter surface tangents, and the visual importance of anisotropy is illustrated with some pictures.
Anisotropic reflection models
A new set of lighting models derived from the questions of electromagnetism are presented that describe the reflection and refraction of light from surfaces which exhibit anisotropy---surfaces with preferred directions, which allows a new mapping technique, which is called frame mapping.
Illumination for computer generated pictures
Human visual perception and the fundamental laws of optics are considered in the development of a shading rule that provides better quality and increased realism in generated images.
A Model for Anisotropic Reeection
A reeection and refraction model for anisotropic surfaces is introduced. The anisotropy is simulated by small cylinders (added or subtracted) distributed on the anisotropic surface. Diierent levels