An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

@article{Simopoulos2016AnII,
  title={An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity},
  author={Artemis P. Simopoulos},
  journal={Nutrients},
  year={2016},
  volume={8}
}
In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Low Dietary Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake Ratio Enhances Adiponectin Level in Obesity
TLDR
The role of fatty acids in omega-6 towards those within omega-3 by using adiponectin as the indicator of advancement to obesity and its underlying diseases is determined.
Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans
TLDR
Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators.
Maternal dietary imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids triggers the offspring’s overeating in mice
TLDR
It is suggested that maternal consumption of diets with unbalanced PUFAs contributes to the offspring’s overconsumption of foods.
Walnut Consumption Induces Tissue-Specific Omega-6/Omega-3 Decrease in High-Fructose-Fed Wistar Rats
TLDR
It is demonstrated that 6-week consumption of walnut favorably modulated n-6/n-3 plasma and tissue ratio in male Wistar rats regardless of high-fructose feeding, underscoring the promising potential of walnuts in both prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.
A high omega-3 fatty acid diet rapidly changes the lipid composition of cardiac tissue and results in cardioprotection.
TLDR
It is indicated that a 1:1 omega-3/6 fatty acid ratio protected against ischemia and was associated with increased omega-2 fatty acid composition of cardiac tissue and infarct size.
Dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate hepatic pathology.
Excess ω-6 fatty acids influx in aging drives metabolic dysregulation, electrocardiographic alterations, and low-grade chronic inflammation.
TLDR
Findings provide compelling evidence that surplus consumption of ω-6 fatty acids, coupled with insufficient intake of ϊ-3 fatty acid, is linked to abnormal changes in ECG and contribute to functional deficiencies and expansion of the inflammatory mediator milieu during later stages of aging.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 133 REFERENCES
The Importance of the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Cardiovascular Disease and Other Chronic Diseases
TLDR
A lower ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is more desirable in reducing the risk of many of the chronic diseases of high prevalence in Western societies, as well as in the developing countries.
Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development.
  • A. Simopoulos
  • Medicine, Biology
    The American journal of clinical nutrition
  • 1991
TLDR
Omega 3 fatty acids decrease the number and size of tumors and increase the time elapsed before appearance of tumors, which is essential for the normal functional development of the retina and brain, particularly in premature infants.
Endogenous ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid production confers resistance to obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes in mice.
TLDR
Exogenous conversion of ω-6 to ψ-3 PUFAs via fat-1 strongly protects against obesity, diabetes, inflammation, and dyslipidemia and may represent a novel therapeutic modality to treat these prevalent disorders.
Omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acid ratio: the scientific evidence
TLDR
The ratio of Omega 6/Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acids - Evolutionary Aspects and Brain-Related Functions and Dietary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease and Cancer are reviewed.
Anti‐obesity effects of long‐chain omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • J. Buckley, P. Howe
  • Biology, Medicine
    Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
  • 2009
TLDR
It is concluded that increased intakes of long‐chain omega‐3 fatty acids may improve body composition, but longer‐term human studies are needed to confirm efficacy and determine whether increasing omega-3 intakes might be an effective strategy to combat obesity.
Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome Brain, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
TLDR
Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance.
n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: a review.
A Western-like fat diet is sufficient to induce a gradual enhancement in fat mass over generations[S]
TLDR
It is shown that a Western-like fat diet induces a gradual fat mass enhancement, in accordance with the increasing prevalence of obesity observed in humans.
Disequilibrium of polyunsaturated fatty acids status and its dual effect in modulating adipose tissue development and functions
TLDR
The results demonstrate that, in addition to favoring white adipose tissue formation, dietary excess of ω 6-PUFA prevents the “browning” process to take place in white adiposes tissue depots, and strongly suggest a favorable role of ψ 3- PUFA supplementation in preventing both processes.
...
...