An External Circuit Model for 3-D Electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell Simulations


In this paper, for the first time, second-order accurate algorithms for coupling external circuit elements to 3-D electromagnetic (EM) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are developed and introduced. The circuit equation including an external voltage or current source, resistance, inductance, capacitance, and a dynamic EM and/or plasma load is solved… (More)


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