An Exploration of the History and Controversies Surrounding MDMA and MDA

@article{Pentney2001AnEO,
  title={An Exploration of the History and Controversies Surrounding MDMA and MDA},
  author={A. R. Pentney},
  journal={Journal of Psychoactive Drugs},
  year={2001},
  volume={33},
  pages={213 - 221}
}
  • A. Pentney
  • Published 1 July 2001
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Abstract In existence for nearly a century, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) have gained quite a reputation. Perceived by some as dangerous neurotoxins, and by others as potential psychotherapeutics, these compounds have become a center of controversy among academics and law enforcement officials, and in the process have gained extensive media exposure. The classification of these drugs as illicit, controlled substances in the United… 
MDMA Misrepresentation: An Unresolved Problem for Ecstasy Users
  • G. Hayner
  • Psychology
    Journal of psychoactive drugs
  • 2002
TLDR
The emergence of several harm reduction strategies, including the publishing of pamphlets warning Ecstasy users to hydrate and cool themselves, and the utilization of chemical tests of tablet shavings to observe color changes purported to help distinguish MDMA-containing tablets from substitutes are examined.
(MDMA): current perspectives
TLDR
Even though MDMA is listed as a Schedule I compound by the Drug Enforcement Agency, MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for patients with chronic, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder is currently under investigation and initial results show efficacy for this treatment approach, although considerably more research must be formed to confirm such efficacy.
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): pharmacology, toxicology, usage patterns, and neurological effects in humans
TLDR
MDMA is a ring-substituted amphetamine with a potential for abuse and there has been a renewed push to acknowledge the potential utility of MDMA in the treatment of conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder.
The Psychopharmacology of ±3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its Role in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
TLDR
The limitations on retrospective human studies and preclinical animal models of MDMA neurotoxicity are examined and the possible neurochemical mechanisms involved in MDMA’s efficacy in treating PTSD are reviewed.
The History of MDMA as an Underground Drug in the United States, 1960–1979
TLDR
The early history of MDMA as a recreational drug in the U.S. from 1960 to 1979 is reconstructed, finding that MDMA was first synthesized by underground chemists in search of "legal alternatives" for the closely related and highly sought-after drug MDA, which was scheduled under the Controlled Substances Act in 1970.
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives
TLDR
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for patients with chronic, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder is currently under investigation, and initial results show efficacy for this treatment approach, although considerably more research must be performed to confirm such efficacy and to ensure that the benefits of MDMA-assisted therapy outweigh the risks to the patients.
Effects of the Psychedelic Amphetamine MDA (3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine) in Healthy Volunteers
TLDR
MDA induced robust increases in heart rate and blood pressure and increased cortisol and prolactin to a similar degree as MDMA and shared features with MDMA as well as with classical psychedelics, suggesting that the greater duration of MDA effects is due to pharmacodynamics rather than pharmacokinetics.
Dark Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine.
TLDR
The synthesis of MDMA is detailed as well as its pharmacology, metabolism, adverse effects, and potential use in medicine, which discusses its history and why it is perhaps the most important compound for the future of psychedelic science.
MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) Analogues as Tools to Characterize MDMA-Like Effects: An Approach to Understand Entactogen Pharmacology
TLDR
The present review presents a brief summary of the pharmacology of MDMA, followed by the evidence accumulated over the years regarding the characterization of classical structurally related MDMA analogues in different models and how this state of the art highlights the need to develop new and better ecstasy analogues.
Mice in ecstasy: advanced animal models in the study of MDMA.
TLDR
An overview of several mouse models (transgenic or knockout) that have greatly contributed to the understanding of MDMA biology, in the light of some characteristic effects of MDMA, e.g. hyperlocomotion, neurotoxicity, hyperthermia, behaviour or rewarding.
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