An Experiment on Fox Domestication and Debatable Issues of Evolution of the Dog

@article{Trut2004AnEO,
  title={An Experiment on Fox Domestication and Debatable Issues of Evolution of the Dog},
  author={Lyudmila N. Trut and I. Z. Plyusnina and Irina N. Oskina},
  journal={Russian Journal of Genetics},
  year={2004},
  volume={40},
  pages={644-655}
}
This paper is a review of the results of the authors obtained in a long-term experiment on fox domestication. Debatable issues of dog evolution are discussed in light of these results. It is demonstrated that genetic physiological mechanisms of the behavior transformation during selection and the nature of the arising phenotypic changes are associated with retarded development of corresponding ontogenetic processes. As a result of this retardation, the adult animals retain juvenile traits of… 
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Changes in behavior, morphology and physiology that appeared in the fox during its selection for tameability were similar to those observed in the domestic dog, and the developmental, genetic and possible molecular genetic mechanisms underlying these changes are discussed.
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There are parallels in behavior change and its molecular genetic basis between domesticated foxes and dogs, with a special focus on the so-called “ancient” breeds.
Mothering the Orphaned Pup: The Beginning of a Domestication Process in the Upper Palaeolithic
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This work discusses the human-initiated model in which wolf pups were brought to camp sites by male hunters and cared for by nursing women, and a good relation between the more sociable and playful pups and the women and their children likely formed affiliative bonds and led to the survival of such pups into maturity.
Deciphering the genetic basis of animal domestication
TLDR
Important recent results derived from the application of population and quantitative genetic approaches to the study of genetic changes in the major domesticated species are described, including findings of regions of the genome that show between-breed differentiation, evidence of selective sweeps within individual genomes and signatures of demographic events.
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