An Enzyme from Bacteria able to Destroy Penicillin

@article{Abraham1940AnEF,
  title={An Enzyme from Bacteria able to Destroy Penicillin},
  author={Edward P. Abraham and Ernst Boris Chain},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1940},
  volume={146},
  pages={837-837}
}
FLEMING1 noted that the growth of B. coli and a number of other bacteria belonging to the colityphoid group was not inhibited by penicillin. This observation has been confirmed. Further work has been done to find the cause of the resistance of these organisms to the action of penicillin. 
The thermostability of penicillinase.
SUMMARY: Extracellular penicillinase produced by the growth of five different strains of the genus Bacillus in casein hydrolysate is rapidly inactivated at 100°, but can be strikingly protected
A Thermostabile, Fungistatic Factor from Escherichia coli
TLDR
It was proved that this was due to the fact that the bacteria in question formed an apparently enzymatic substance able to destroy penicillin, which was first demonstrated by Abraham and Chain1 in Esch.
On Penicillin Inactivators and Susceptibility of Micro-Organisms to Penicillin
TLDR
In the course of mass production of the antibiotic and its use in enormous amounts for parenteral treatment, two other accidental inactivations were observed.
The Susceptibility of Penicillinase-producing Bacteria to Penicillin
TLDR
It appeared worth while to study a wide variety of such organisms to determine further the factors that influence their susceptibility to penicillin.
Chemistry and Biosynthesis of Penicillins and Cephalosporins
It has now been more than 50 years since Fleming’s legendary observations on the inhibition of bacterial growth by Penicillium notatum laid the foundations of modern antibiotic chemotherapy.
An evaluation of 12 methods for the demonstration of penicillinase.
  • T. J. Lucas
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of clinical pathology
  • 1979
Twelve methods for the demonstration of bacterial penicillinase production by strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus are compared, and their suitability for routine clinical
Alexander Fleming: the spectrum of penicillin.
EXTRACTION OF A HIGHLY POTENT PENICILLIN INACTIVATOR FROM PENICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCI
A highly potent penicillin inactivator has been extracted from 7 strains of Staph. aureus (coagulase positive), all of which were naturally penicillin resistant. No such inhibitor was present in
Formation of 6-Aminopenicillanic Acid by Alkaline Hydrolysis of Penicillins
TLDR
Two groups of enzymes hydrolyse penicillins (I) and penicillinase1, which opens the β-lactam ring to form the corresponding penicilloic acid (II).
Survival of infectious agents and detection of their resistance and virulence factors
In the first study, three different transport systems for bacteria were evaluated. The CLSI M40-A guideline was used to monitor the maintenance of both mono- and polymicrobial samples during a simu
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