An Emergent Universe from a loop

@article{Mulryne2005AnEU,
  title={An Emergent Universe from a loop},
  author={David J. Mulryne and Reza Tavakol and James E. Lidsey and George F R Ellis},
  journal={Physical Review D},
  year={2005},
  volume={71},
  pages={123512}
}
Closed, singularity-free, inflationary cosmological models have recently been studied in the context of general relativity. Despite their appeal, these so called emergent models suffer from a number of limitations. These include the fact that they rely on an initial Einstein static state to describe the past-eternal phase of the universe. Given the instability of such a state within the context of general relativity, this amounts to a very severe fine tuning. Also in order to be able to study… 
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