In this article, Professor Howard Chang addresses the role of trade restric tions in supporting policies to protect the global environment and proposes a more liberal treatment of these environmental trade measures than that adopted by dispute-settlement panels of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The GATT Secretariat has recommended that countries like the United States rely on "canots" rather than "sticks" in order to induce the participation of other countries in multilateral environmental agreements. Pro fessor Chang defends the use of sticks on the ground that they encourage more restrained exploitation of the environment pending a multilateral agreement. First, sticks discourage countries from hanning the environment. Second, cmTots create perverse incentives. Countries may seek to convince others that they detive large benefits from exploitation by engaging in a great deal of exploitation, so that other countries will offer larger catTots to induce their restraint. Professor Chang also addresses how GATT should limit the use of trade restrictions to prevent the protectionist abuse of trade measures.