An Application of “Broken‐Windows” and Related Theories to the Study of Disorder, Fear, and Collective Efficacy in Schools

@article{Plank2008AnAO,
  title={An Application of “Broken‐Windows” and Related Theories to the Study of Disorder, Fear, and Collective Efficacy in Schools},
  author={Stephen B. Plank and Catherine P. Bradshaw and Hollie Anne Young},
  journal={American Journal of Education},
  year={2008},
  volume={115},
  pages={227 - 247}
}
This article considers school climate and perceptions of social disorder. When a school is characterized by disorder or physical risk, basic educational goals and processes are jeopardized. We use survey data from 33 public schools serving grades 6–8 in a large mid‐Atlantic city to examine relationships among physical disorder (e.g., broken windows and poor building conditions), fear, collective efficacy, and social disorder. Path analyses reveal a direct association between physical disorder… 
Assessing the Association Between Observed School Disorganization and School Violence: Implications for School Climate Interventions
Objective: This study explored how observed features of the school physical and social environment relate to students’ perceptions of school climate and how these in turn were associated with
School Disorder, School Connectedness, and Psychosocial Outcomes: Moderation by a Supportive Figure in the School
The current study examined whether students’ perceptions of school disorder influenced their psychosocial outcomes directly and indirectly via connectedness to school. The current study also explored
Overlapping Verbal, Relational, Physical, and Electronic Forms of Bullying in Adolescence: Influence of School Context
  • C. Bradshaw, T. Waasdorp, S. L. Johnson
  • Psychology
    Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology : the official journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53
  • 2015
TLDR
Findings extend prior research by emphasizing a potential link between the overlap in different forms of bullying and school contextual factors, even after controlling for individual-level risk factors.
Clarifying the Relationship Between Bullying and Fear of Victimization: The Contribution of Collective Efficacy
Clarifying the Relationship Between Bullying and Fear of Victimization: The Contribution of Collective Efficacy Karen R. Spence Department of Sociology, BYU Master of Science The rate of fear of
Hate at school: victimization and disorder associated with school avoidance
Abstract Previous research indicates that victimization at school and school disorder are associated with school avoidance. The appearance of hateful words and symbols at schools and verbal hateful
Staying Away From School
Perceptions of school safety, fear of crime among students, and school avoidance have received increasing research attention in recent decades. Feeling unsafe at school impacts mental health,
A Model of Rural Delinquency: Collective Efficacy in Rural Schools
Researchers have long studied the links between neighborhood contexts and adolescent behaviors. However, most literature examining neighborhood influences on juvenile behavior has focused on urban
An empirical application of “broken windows” and related theories in healthcare: examining disorder, patient safety, staff outcomes, and collective efficacy in hospitals
TLDR
A positive, orderly, productive culture is likely to lead to wellbeing for staff and the delivery of safer care for patients, and support is found for the hypothesis that the relationship from social disorder to outcomes (burnout, job satisfaction, patient safety) was mediated by collective efficacy.
Measuring school climate in high schools: a focus on safety, engagement, and the environment.
TLDR
The results suggest the 56-item measure may be a potentially efficient, yet comprehensive measure of school climate and suggest measurement invariance and high internal consistency of the 3 scales and 13 subdomains of the USDOE model.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 34 REFERENCES
Which “broken windows” matter? school, neighborhood, and family characteristics associated with youths’ feelings of unsafety
TLDR
It is suggested that fixing the broken windows of school disorderliness may have a significant, positive impact on adolescents’ feelings of safety.
Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy.
TLDR
Multilevel analyses showed that a measure of collective efficacy yields a high between-neighborhood reliability and is negatively associated with variations in violence, when individual-level characteristics, measurement error, and prior violence are controlled.
Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods1
This article assesses the sources and consequences of public disorder. Based on the videotaping and systematic rating of more than 23,000 street segments in Chicago, highly reliable scales of social
School functioning and violent behavior among young adolescents: a contextual analysis.
TLDR
The results support earlier work suggesting that objectively measured school characteristics are associated with students' violent behaviors even after accounting for individual-level factors and also identify a subgroup of students for whom school detachment may be an issue.
Curriculum, Culture, and Community: The Challenge of School Violence
It is possible to imagine a school designed and managed effectively for safety as well as education. Public schools, once considered a response to urban violence and disorder, now are widely believed
Student violence and the moral dimensions of education
Student violence has started to appear in schools in extreme forms. Various causes have been suggested, including TV violence, dysfunctional families, grinding poverty, child abuse, domestic
Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory
Shaw and McKay's influential theory of community social disorganization has never been directly tested. To address this, a community-level theory that builds on Shaw and McKay's original model is
Community Social Organization, Parents, and Peers as Mediators of Perceived Neighborhood Block Characteristics on Delinquent and Prosocial Activities
TLDR
Support is found for both a direct and indirect influence of perceived neighborhood structural characteristics, measured at the block level, on neighborhood and youth outcomes, highlighting the need for more comprehensive and multilevel prevention efforts.
...
...