An Animal Model of Varicella Virus Infection

@article{White2001AnAM,
  title={An Animal Model of Varicella Virus Infection},
  author={Tiffany M. White and Donald H. Gilden and Ravi Mahalingam},
  journal={Brain Pathology},
  year={2001},
  volume={11}
}
Varicella‐zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox in children; establishes latency in cranial nerve, dorsal root, and autonomic ganglia; and reactivates decades later to produce zoster. VZV produces disease only in humans. Although attempts to produce disease and study VZV latency in experimentally infected animals have resulted in virus in trigeminal or dorsal root ganglia, no clinical signs of infection or reactivation developed. In contrast, simian varicella virus (SVV) produces a naturally… Expand
Simian varicella: a model for human varicella‐zoster virus infections
  • W. Gray
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Reviews in medical virology
  • 2004
TLDR
The relatedness of VZV and SVV and the similarities in the clinical symptoms and pathogenesis of human and simian varicella make SVV infection of nonhuman primates an excellent animal model to investigate V zoster pathogenesis and latency, and to evaluate potential antiviral strategies. Expand
Insights into the Pathogenesis of Varicella Viruses
TLDR
The immune evasion mechanisms developed by varicelloviruses to escape the host immune responses and the current vaccines available for protecting individuals against chickenpox and herpes zoster are examined. Expand
Clinical and molecular pathogenesis of varicella virus infection.
TLDR
A current summary ofvaricella latency and pathogenesis produced by simian varicella virus (SVV), the counterpart of human VZV, points to the usefulness of a primate model of natural infection to study variceLLA latency, as well as the experimental model of intratracheal inoculation to study the effectiveness of antiviral agents in driving persistent variceella virus into a latent state. Expand
Simian Varicella Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques Recapitulates Essential Features of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection in Humans
TLDR
Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provides a novel model to analyze viral and immunological mechanisms of VZV latency and reactivation and presents the first in depth analysis of the immune response to SVV. Expand
Varicella zoster virus latency, neurological disease and experimental models: an update.
TLDR
Since neurological disease produced by VZV is due to reactivation from ganglia, the physical state of viral nucleic acid and expression during latency as well as the possible mechanisms by which VZv latency is maintained and reactivates are discussed. Expand
Viral gene expression during acute simian varicella virus infection.
TLDR
This study demonstrates expression of specific SVV immediate early, early and late genes in the skin, lung, liver and ganglia tissues of acutely infected monkeys and provides a foundation for further investigation on the role of viral genes in varicella pathogenesis and latency. Expand
Simian varicella virus: molecular virology.
  • W. Gray
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Current topics in microbiology and immunology
  • 2010
TLDR
Genetic approaches have been developed to create SVV mutants, which will be used to study the role of SVV genes in viral pathogenesis, latency, and reactivation, and foreign genes are being investigated as potential recombinant varicella vaccines. Expand
A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation.
TLDR
There is increasing evidence that HSV-1 and VZV latency is epigenetically regulated, and in vitro models that permit pathway analysis and identification of both epigenetic modulations and global transcriptional mechanisms hold much promise for the future understanding in this complex area. Expand
Human trigeminal ganglionic explants as a model to study alphaherpesvirus reactivation
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) latency is characterized by limited virus gene expression and the absence of virus DNA replication. Investigations of VZV latency and reactivation have been hindered byExpand
Varicella-Zoster Virus Gene 66 Transcription and Translation in Latently Infected Human Ganglia
TLDR
Analysis of latently infected human trigeminal ganglia for 66-pk expression by reverse transcriptase-dependent nested PCR revealed VZV open reading frame 66 to be a previously unrecognized latently expressed virus gene and suggests that prevention of IE62 import to the nucleus by VZ V 66- pk phosphorylation is one possible mechanism by which VZv latency is maintained. Expand
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 41 REFERENCES
Evidence of latent varicella-zoster virus in rat dorsal root ganglia.
Latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was studied in ganglia of rats that had been inoculated subcutaneously with either a high-passaged wild-type, a low-passaged wild-type, or the vaccine strain ofExpand
An in vivo model of varicella‐zoster virus latent infection of dorsal root ganglia
TLDR
This in vivo model of varicellazoster virus latent infection in the adult rat peripheral nervous system provides a useful tool for studying the molecular mechanisms leading to an in vivo latency and the role of the immune system, in particular cellular immunity, on the establishment, maintenance, and reactivation of latency. Expand
Latent varicella-zoster viral DNA in human trigeminal and thoracic ganglia.
TLDR
Findings indicate that after primary infection with varicella-zoster virus (varicella), the virus becomes latent in many ganglia--more often in the trigeminal ganglia than in any thoracic ganglion--and that more than one region of the viral genome is present during latency. Expand
Simian varicella virus DNA in dorsal root ganglia.
TLDR
It is suggested that SVV becomes latent in monkey ganglia and that latency can develop in the absence of clinical varicella (chickenpox), and these studies provide an animal model system to studyvaricella virus latency. Expand
Varicella-zoster virus immunizes patas monkeys against simian varicella-like disease.
To define further the antigenic relationship between human varicella-zoster virus and herpesviruses which produce varicella-like disease in certain simian species, patas monkeys were inoculated withExpand
Animal models of varicella.
TLDR
Seroconversion following inoculation of VZV in small laboratory animals has been demonstrated in the rat, rabbit, and guinea pig; however, animal-to-animal spread, viremia, and exanthem have been demonstrated only in guinea pigs. Expand
The genomes of simian varicella virus and varicella zoster virus are colinear.
TLDR
Support is provided for SVV infection of non-human primates as a model for VZv infection of humans and the location of specific SVV genes may be predicted from the known map positions of homologous VZV genes. Expand
Simian Varicella Virus (Delta Herpesvirus) Infection of Patas Monkeys Leading to Pneumonia and Encephalitis 1 2
  • J. Iltis, Mark Aarons, +4 authors W. London
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1982
Abstract Patas monkeys were infected with Delta herpesvirus (DHV) to determine the pathogenicity of this virus in the lung and brain in order to assess the suitability of this model for severeExpand
Simian varicella virus infects ganglia before rash in experimentally infected monkeys.
TLDR
Analysis of ganglia from monkeys sacrificed at 10 days revealed that intravenous inoculation produced a higher proportion of SVV DNA-positive ganglia than that after intratracheal inoculation, pointing to the role of hematogenous spread in ganglionic infection. Expand
Ocular varicella-zoster virus infection in the guinea pig. A new in vivo model.
Corneal intrastromal inoculation of guinea pigs with approximately 10(4) plaque-forming units of live, adapted varicella-zoster virus (VZV) resulted in reproducible, acute, superficial cornealExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...