An Analytical Evaluation of the Factor $k^{2}$ for Protective Conductors


At the occurrence of phase-to-ground faults, abnormal levels of thermal energy I2t, due to the Joule effect, will be developed during the clearing time that protective devices take to operate. The I2t, also referred to as specific energy or Joule Integral, is accumulated within the elements forming the fault loop, such as the protective conductors (also… (More)
DOI: 10.1109/IAS.2011.6074413

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