An Analysis of the New York City Police Department's “Stop-and-Frisk” Policy in the Context of Claims of Racial Bias

@article{Gelman2007AnAO,
  title={An Analysis of the New York City Police Department's “Stop-and-Frisk” Policy in the Context of Claims of Racial Bias},
  author={Andrew Gelman and Jeffrey A. Fagan and Alex Kiss},
  journal={Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  year={2007},
  volume={102},
  pages={813 - 823}
}
Recent studies by police departments and researchers confirm that police stop persons of racial and ethnic minority groups more often than whites relative to their proportions in the population. However, it has been argued that stop rates more accurately reflect rates of crimes committed by each ethnic group, or that stop rates reflect elevated rates in specific social areas, such as neighborhoods or precincts. Most of the research on stop rates and police–citizen interactions has focused on… 
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TLDR
It is hypothesized that public scrutiny on police stops is positively related to the prevalence of opaque stop practices across dimensions of “intrusiveness,” “rationale,’ and “setting” derived from agency records and suggested that this relationship is influenced by neighborhood conditions in the form of concentrated disadvantage, residential instability, and heterogeneity.
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