An Analysis of the New York City Police Department's “Stop-and-Frisk” Policy in the Context of Claims of Racial Bias

@article{Gelman2007AnAO,
  title={An Analysis of the New York City Police Department's “Stop-and-Frisk” Policy in the Context of Claims of Racial Bias},
  author={Andrew Gelman and Jeffrey A. Fagan and Alex Kiss},
  journal={Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  year={2007},
  volume={102},
  pages={813 - 823}
}
Recent studies by police departments and researchers confirm that police stop persons of racial and ethnic minority groups more often than whites relative to their proportions in the population. However, it has been argued that stop rates more accurately reflect rates of crimes committed by each ethnic group, or that stop rates reflect elevated rates in specific social areas, such as neighborhoods or precincts. Most of the research on stop rates and police–citizen interactions has focused on… Expand
Stop and Frisk Redux: Analysis of Racial Bias in New York City
With the rise of violent crime in the 1990s the New York City Police Department (NYPD) turned to proactive policing practices. Perhaps the most known of these practices is Stop, Question, and Frisk,Expand
An Economic Analysis of Black-White Disparities in the New York Police Department’s Stop-and-Frisk Program
We introduce a model to explore the identification of two distinct sources of bias in the New York Police Department’s stop-and-frisk program: the police officer making the stop decisions and theExpand
Do Precinct Characteristics Influence Stop-and-Frisk in New York City? A Multi-Level Analysis of Post-Stop Outcomes
Between 2003 and 2014, the majority of people stopped under the New York Police Department’s policy of stop-and-frisk were non-white. This led to charges of racial bias. This paper examines whetherExpand
The Relationship Between Crime and Stop, Question, and Frisk Rates in New York City Neighborhoods
The current study builds on prior research in an analysis of the relationship between monthly violent and property crime rates in New York City census tracks and the New York City Police Department’sExpand
Race, Place, and Context: The Persistence of Race Effects in Traffic Stop Outcomes in the Face of Situational, Demographic, and Political Controls
Abstract Evidence that racial minorities are targeted for searches during police traffic stops is widespread, but observed differences in outcomes following a traffic stop between white drivers andExpand
What Do We Know About NYC’s Stop and Frisk Program?: A Spatial and Statistical Analysis
Since its inception, New York City's stop-and-frisk program has been controversial. The policy allows police officers to stop, question, and frisk individuals who are suspected of committing, havingExpand
Segregation and racial disparities in post-stop outcomes: insights from New York City
ABSTRACT This research assesses the relationships of five dimensions of racial segregation with the likelihood of being subject to frisk, search, police force, and arrest in New York City.Expand
After the Stop: Exploring the Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Police Use of Force During Terry Stops
Questions surrounding stop, question, and frisk (SQF) practices have focused almost exclusively on racial and ethnic disproportionality in the rate of stops, and whether police are engaged in racialExpand
Racial Profiling and Use of Force in Police Stops: How Local Events Trigger Periods of Increased Discrimination1
Racial profiling and the disproportionate use of police force are controversial political issues. I argue that racial bias in the use of force increases after relevant events such as the shooting ofExpand
Stop, Question, and Complain: Citizen Grievances Against the NYPD and the Opacity of Police Stops Across New York City Precincts, 2007–2013
TLDR
It is hypothesized that public scrutiny on police stops is positively related to the prevalence of opaque stop practices across dimensions of “intrusiveness,” “rationale,’ and “setting” derived from agency records and suggested that this relationship is influenced by neighborhood conditions in the form of concentrated disadvantage, residential instability, and heterogeneity. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 99 REFERENCES
Street Stops and Broken Windows: Terry, Race and Disorder in New York City
Patterns of "stop and frisk" activity by police across New York City neighborhoods reflect competing theories of aggressive policing. "Broken Windows" theory suggests that neighborhoods with greaterExpand
Law, Social Science, and Racial Profiling
The term “racial profiling” describes race-based selection of citizens for interdiction by police and other legal actors. Several studies have examined whether police disproportionately stop minorityExpand
The Neighborhood Context of Police Behavior
A number of researchers have hypothesized that neighborhood context may influence police behavior. Data from sixty neighborhoods located in three large U. S. cities were analyzed using bivariate andExpand
Searching for the Denominator: Problems with Police Traffic Stop Data and an Early Warning System Solution
In response to widespread allegations of racial and ethnic discrimination in traffic stops, a practice that has been labeled “racial profiling,” law enforcement agencies are now collecting data onExpand
Road Work: Racial Profiling and Drug Interdiction on the Highway
Under court orders in past and pending cases, the Maryland State Police maintain a uniquely detailed, publicly available database on the stops and searches they conduct on Interstate Highway 95. InExpand
SUSPECT SEARCHES: ASSESSING POLICE BEHAVIOR UNDER THE U.S. CONSTITUTION*
Research Summary: This study examines police conformity to the law by evaluating direct observations of police searches in a medium-sized American city against the applicable constitutionalExpand
DRIVING WHILE BLACK: EFFECTS OF RACE, ETHNICITY, AND GENDER ON CITIZEN SELF‐REPORTS OF TRAFFIC STOPS AND POLICE ACTIONS*
Are African-American men, compared with white men, more likely to report being stopped by police for traffic law violations? Are African-American men and Hispanic drivers less likely to report thatExpand
The Stories, the Statistics and the Law: Why 'Driving While Black' Matters
Racial profiling of drivers - often called "driving while black" - has taken an increasingly important role in the public debate on issues of race and criminal justice. It is one of the few suchExpand
Reflecting on the Subject: A Critique of the Social Influence Conception of Deterrence, the Broken Windows Theory, and Order-Maintenance Policing New York Style
There has been overwhelming support for order-maintenance policing, in particular for New York City's quality-of-life initiative, in the media, among public officials and policy-makers, and inExpand
Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods1
This article assesses the sources and consequences of public disorder. Based on the videotaping and systematic rating of more than 23,000 street segments in Chicago, highly reliable scales of socialExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...