An Analysis of the Chinese Maritime Voyages into the Indian Ocean during Early Ming Dynasty and their Raison d'Etre

@article{Ray1987AnAO,
  title={An Analysis of the Chinese Maritime Voyages into the Indian Ocean during Early Ming Dynasty and their Raison d'Etre},
  author={Haraprasad Ray},
  journal={China Report},
  year={1987},
  volume={23},
  pages={65 - 87}
}
The Chinese were not a maritime nation, as the Arabs (and the Indians before them) were during the Han and Tang dynasties, but they succeeded in their efforts to be one after 1127 AD (Southern Song Dynasty) when the capital was shifted to Hangzhou, which was exposed to attacks from the sea. The possession of a huge naval force enabled the Chinese to maintain control over trade with a piratical fringe in the high seas in the Pacific Ocean adjoining China. Towards the end of the thirteenth… 
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References

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They conform to the list given by Huang Shengceng in its entirety. Only the serial order is changed in some cases

  • The following lists also conform to the tribute articles entered in Da Ming Huidian. j. 105-7, Wen hai chuban she

304, p. 2a, see also Duyvendak, op. cit

    Zheng He Xia Xiyang mudi luekao' (A Historical Textual Criticism of the Purposes of Zheng He's Expeditions), Dalian haiyun xueyuan Xuebao

    • Journal of the Dalian Marine Transport Institute )
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    Items Exported and Imported by China~ (Countries outside India are cited for comparison