An 8-year longitudinal study of mirror self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

  title={An 8-year longitudinal study of mirror self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)},
  author={Monique W. De Veer and Gordon G. Jr. Gallup and Laura Theall and Ruud van den Bos and Daniel J. Povinelli},
In a previous cross-sectional study of mirror self-recognition involving 92 chimpanzees, Povinelli et al. [Journal of Comparative Psychology 107 (1993) 347] reported a peak in the proportion of animals exhibiting self-recognition in the adolescent/young adult sample (8-15 years), with 75% being classified as positive. In contrast, only 26% of the older animals (16-39 years) were classified as positive, suggesting a marked decline in self-recognition in middle to late adulthood. In the present… Expand
Precocious development of self-awareness in dolphins
It is reported that both dolphins exhibited MSR, indicated by self-directed behavior at the mirror, at ages earlier than generally reported for children and at ages much earlier than reported for chimpanzees. Expand
The Ontogeny of Social Comparisons in Rhesus Macaques (Macacamulatta)
This longitudinal study investigated the development of social contrast-negative responses to inequitable rewards-in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Although responses to inequity by humans appearExpand
A note on the responses of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to live self-images on television monitors
  • S. Hirata
  • Medicine, Computer Science
  • Behavioural Processes
  • 2007
Preliminary data on the reactions of chimpanzees to live self-images projected on two television monitors, each connected to a different video camera, indicate that these chimpanzees were able to immediately recognize live images of themselves or objects on the monitors, even though several features of these images differed from those of their previous experience with mirrors. Expand
The evolution of primate visual self-recognition: evidence of absence in lesser apes
It is shown that lesser apes (family Hylobatidae) fail to use the mirror to find surreptitiously placed marks on their head, in spite of being strongly motivated to retrieve directly visible marks from the mirror surface itself and from their own limbs. Expand
Small Mirrors Do the Trick: A Simple, but Effective Method to Study Mirror Self-Recognition in Chimpanzees
Mirror self-recognition (MSR) is considered an indicator of self-awareness. Standardized mirror tests reveal compelling evidence for MSR in a few non-human species, including all great apes. However,Expand
Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) recognize their own past actions
It is demonstrated that orangutans were able to discriminate between a delayed video of themselves presented after a 2-s delay and a recorded video of the day prior, suggesting that orangs have the ability to relate their own past actions to current actions, although it is found no evidence of self-directed behaviour. Expand
Mirror self-recognition: a review and critique of attempts to promote and engineer self-recognition in primates
It is concluded that to date there is no compelling evidence that prosimians, monkeys, or lesser apes—gibbons and siamangs—are capable of mirror self-recognition. Expand
Self‐Awareness in Human and Chimpanzee Infants: What Is Measured and What Is Meant by the Mark and Mirror Test?
The objective study of self-recognition, with a mirror and a mark applied to the face, was conducted independently by Gallup (1970) for use with chimpanzees and monkeys, and by Amsterdam (1972) forExpand
Chimpanzees recognize their own delayed self-image
These findings suggest that chimpanzees, like human children at the age of 4 years and more, can comprehend temporal dissociation in their concept of self. Expand
Investigating self-recognition in bonobos: mirror exposure reduces looking time to self but not unfamiliar conspecifics
Investigation of how bonobos respond to different types of images of themselves and others, both before and after prolonged mirror exposure found that subjects paid significantly less attention to contingent images of ourselves than to non-contingent images of itself and unfamiliar individuals, suggesting they perceived the non- Contingent self-images as novel. Expand


Self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence.
Results suggest that SR typically emerges at 4.5-8 years of age, at the population level the capacity declines in adulthood, and in group settings SR typically occurs within minutes of a subject's exposure to a mirror. Expand
Age differences in the ability of chimpanzees to distinguish mirror-images of self from video images of others.
The results suggest that, unlike self-exploratory behavior, contingent facial and body movements may not, by themselves, be reliable indicators of self-recognition. Expand
A critical review of methodology and interpretation of mirror self-recognition research in nonhuman primates
In this paper we critically review conceptual and methodological issues of mirror self-exploration research. We conclude that: (1) mirror self-exploration provides evidence for mirrorExpand
The mirror test
Can animals recognize themselves in mirrors? Gallup (1970) conducted an experimental test of this question using a relatively simple approach. Individually housed chimpanzees were confronted with aExpand
Long‐term retention of self‐recognition by chimpanzees
The chimpanzee's self‐awareness, as inferred from its self‐recognition, appears to be a stable characteristic of the animal. Expand
Chimpanzees recognize themselves in mirrors
Abstract Heyes’ (1994, Anim. Behav., 97, 909–919; 1995, Anim. Behav., 50, 1533–1542) recent account of chimpanzees’, Pan troglodytes, reactions to mirrors challenged the view that they are capable ofExpand
Mirror self-image reactions before age two.
  • B. Amsterdam
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Developmental psychobiology
  • 1972
The results indicate the following age-related sequence of behavior before the mirror: the first prolonged and repeated reaction of an infant to his mirror image is that of a sociable “playmate” from about 6 through 12 months of age. Expand
Self-recognition and the right prefrontal cortex
Data from fMRI, ERPs and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as well as from split-brain studies and patients with focal lesions, indicate that the prefrontal cortex, with possible right hemisphere lateralization, may be a preferential component in self- recognition. Expand
Self-face recognition is affected by schizotypal personality traits
The data are the first to show that traits associated with a schizophrenic spectrum disorder in a non-clinical population may compromise self-face recognition, and imply that self- face processing in the right hemisphere is impaired in individuals with schizotypal traits. Expand
Cerebral Representation of One’s Own Past: Neural Networks Involved in Autobiographical Memory
Results suggest that a right hemispheric network of temporal, together with posterior, cingulate, and prefrontal, areas is engaged in the ecphory of affect-laden autobiographical information. Expand