Amsterdam and London as financial centers in the eighteenth century1

@article{Carlos2011AmsterdamAL,
  title={Amsterdam and London as financial centers in the eighteenth century1},
  author={A. Carlos and L. Neal},
  journal={Financial History Review},
  year={2011},
  volume={18},
  pages={21 - 46}
}
In the seventeenth century, Amsterdam and London developed distinctive innovations in finance through both banks and markets that facilitated the growth of trade in each city. In the eighteenth century, a symbiotic relation developed that led to bank-oriented finance in Amsterdam cooperating with market-oriented finance in London. The relationship that emerged allowed each to rise to unprecedented dominance in Europe, while the respective financial innovations in each city provided the means… Expand
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