Amphiregulin, a TH2 Cytokine Enhancing Resistance to Nematodes

  title={Amphiregulin, a TH2 Cytokine Enhancing Resistance to Nematodes},
  author={Dietmar M. W. Zaiss and Li V. Yang and Pranav R. Shah and James J. Kobie and Joseph F. Urban and Tim R. Mosmann},
  pages={1746 - 1746}
Although type 2 immune responses contribute to allergy and asthma, these responses are essential for clearing intestinal helminth infestations by mechanisms that include increased epithelial shedding. We show that T helper 2 cells (TH2), but not other T cell subsets, express amphiregulin, a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. EGF receptor ligands directly induce epithelial cell proliferation, and lack of amphiregulin delayed expulsion of the nematode Trichuris muris. This newly… 
Host responses to intestinal nematodes
Intestinal nematode infection induces the development of Th2-type immune responses including the B-cell IgE response, which contribute to expel nematodes and Immunosuppression by parasite infection may ultimately be beneficial for the host animals.
Type 2 Cytokine Responses: Regulating Immunity to Helminth Parasites and Allergic Inflammation
Increased understanding of the pathways that regulate type 2 cytokine-mediated immunity and inflammation have revealed novel therapeutic targets to treat both helminth infections and allergic disease states.
Role of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Allergic Diseases
The growing evidences of the contribution of ILC2 in the induction and maintenance of allergic inflammation in type 2-dominated diseases suggest the possibility to target them in therapy.
Helminth Modulation of Lung Inflammation.
Th2 Cell Responses in Immunity and Inflammation Following Helminth Infection
Type 2 immunity, in which innate cells such as basophils, eosinophil, mast cells, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells are engaged, and adaptive immune responses that include T helper 2 (Th2) cells, T follicular helper (Tfh), and B cells are essential for resistance to, or survival with, helminth infections.
Immunity to helminths: resistance, regulation, and susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes.
Greater understanding of the mechanisms of susceptibility has provided the basis for defining host immunoregulation and parasite-evasion strategies, helping place in context the changing patterns of immunological disease observed worldwide.
T H 2, allergy and group 2 innate lymphoid
Identification of a new innate lymphoid subset that produces the canonical type 2 cytokines IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 in response to IL-25 andIL-33 and examination of potential roles for ILC2 cells in the maintenance of homeostasis promise to be particularly fruitful.
ILC2s—Trailblazers in the Host Response Against Intestinal Helminths
The latest insights into ILC2 activation are outlined and the requirement for—or redundancy of—ILC2s in providing protective immunity against intestinal helminth parasites is discussed.


Gastrointestinal parasite and host interactions
This review focuses on studies that use enteral parasitic infections as a tool to investigate the functional consequences of upregulation of Th2-mediated immunity and that manipulate host–parasite interactions in an effort to identify mechanisms that can be exploited as potential therapeutic targets.
Accelerated Intestinal Epithelial Cell Turnover: A New Mechanism of Parasite Expulsion
It is shown that an increase in the rate of epithelial cell turnover in the large intestine acts like an “epithelial escalator” to expel Trichuris and that the rates of epithel cell movement is under immune control by the cytokine interleukin-13 and the chemokine CXCL10.
TH1 and TH2 cells: different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different functional properties.
Two types of cloned helper T cells are described, defined primarily by differences in the pattern of lymphokines ynthesized, and the different functions of the two types of cells and their lymphokine synthesis are discussed.
Synthesis of several chemokines but few cytokines by primed uncommitted precursor CD4 T cells suggests that these cells recruit other immune cells without exerting direct effector functions
The secretion of several chemokines, but few cytokines, by primed uncommitted Thpp cells suggests that their activation during an immune response may recruit effector cells without directly polarizing effector functions.
Stimulation and inhibition of proliferation in the small intestinal crypts of the mouse after in vivo administration of growth factors.
Little effect was seen after treatment with acidic FGF, TNF alpha, or MIP-1 alpha but EGF, IGF-I and II, and TGF alpha can all be seen to exert some stimulatory effects on labelling or mitosis.
Targeted inactivation of the EGF and amphiregulin genes reveals distinct roles for EGF receptor ligands in mouse mammary gland development.
The results provide genetic confirmation of a requirement for EGFR signaling throughout the development of the mouse mammary gland, and reveal stage-dependent activities for different EGFR ligands.
Materials and Methods are available on Science Online
    Public Health Service grants AI48604 and DFG/ZA280. We thank D. Lee for providing the original amphiregulin-deficient mice