Amphibious communication with sound in hippos, Hippopotamus amphibius

@article{Barklow2004AmphibiousCW,
  title={Amphibious communication with sound in hippos, Hippopotamus amphibius
},
  author={William E. Barklow},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={2004},
  volume={68},
  pages={1125-1132}
}
The difference in acoustic impedance between air and water makes it difficult to communicate efficiently with sound in both media. Sounds made in either air or water, for example, are almost completely reflected at the boundary. Several species, however, may use amphibious communication. Here I report that hippos make sounds both in air and underwater, and, with their heads in an amphibious position (eyes and nostrils above water but mouth and throat submerged), are able to transmit sounds to… Expand
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