Amphibian chytridiomycosis in Japan: distribution, haplotypes and possible route of entry into Japan

@article{Goka2009AmphibianCI,
  title={Amphibian chytridiomycosis in Japan: distribution, haplotypes and possible route of entry into Japan},
  author={Koichi Goka and Jun Yokoyama and Yumi Une and Toshiro Kuroki and Kazutaka Suzuki and Miri Nakahara and A. Kobayashi and Shigeki Inaba and Tomoo Mizutani and Alex D. Hyatt},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
  year={2009},
  volume={18}
}
A serious disease of amphibians caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was first found in Japan in December 2006 in imported pet frogs. This was the first report of chytridiomycosis in Asia. To assess the risk of pandemic chytridiomycosis to Japanese frogs, we surveyed the distribution of the fungus among captive and wild frog populations. We established a nested PCR assay that uses two pairs of PCR primers to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of a… 
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and haplotypes in domestic and imported pet amphibians in Japan.
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The results show that Bd is currently entering Japan via the international trade in exotic amphibians as pets, suggesting that the trade has indeed played a major role in the spread of Bd.
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis detected in Kihansi spray toads at a captive breeding facility (Kihansi, Tanzania).
TLDR
This is the first study reporting molecular characteristics of Bd isolated from the Udzungwa Mountains, a global biodiversity hotspot, and will be important for conservation of several endemic amphibian species in the Udzinzi Mountains, which are part of the Eastern Arc Mountains.
Emerging Chytrid Fungal Pathogen, Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis, in Zoo Amphibians in Thailand
TLDR
Skin swab samples revealed the typical feature of fl ask-shaped zoosporangia and septate thalli, supporting the PCR-based evidence of chytridiomycosis in captive amphibians in Thailand, but detected Bd in only 7/21 of thePCR-positive samples.
Genetic evidence for a high diversity and wide distribution of endemic strains of the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wild Asian amphibians
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The results point to the presence of highly diversified endemic strains of Bd across Asian amphibian species, and highlight the need to consider possible complex interactions among native Bd lineages, Bd‐GPL and their associated amphibian hosts when assessing the spread and impact of BD‐G PL on worldwide amphibian populations.
Enzootic frog pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Asian tropics reveals high ITS haplotype diversity and low prevalence
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Unraveling the historical prevalence of the invasive chytrid fungus in the Bolivian Andes: implications in recent amphibian declines
TLDR
It is hypothesized that the early 1990s, and the cloud-forests in central Bolivia were the center of an epidemic surge of Bd that took its toll on many species, especially in the genus Telmatobius.
Genetic analysis of post-epizootic amphibian chytrid strains in Bolivia: Adding a piece to the puzzle.
TLDR
A more complex evolutionary history for this pathogen in Bolivia is suggested, and the presence of Bd-GPL is extended to the central Andes in South America, and this hypervirulent strain is reported at Lago Titicaca, where Bd has been detected since 1863, without evidence of amphibian declines.
Early presence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Mexico with a contemporary dominance of the global panzootic lineage
TLDR
A contemporary dominance of the global panzootic lineage in Mexico is observed and four genetic subpopulations and potential for admixture among these populations are reported, with a clear geographic signature or support for the epizootic wave hypothesis.
Distribution modeling and lineage diversity of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in a central African amphibian hotspot
TLDR
Identification of Bd-GPL lineages in areas of high amphibian diversity emphasizes the need to continue to monitor for Bd and develop appropriate conservation strategies to prevent its further spread.
Chytridiomycosis in Asian Amphibians, a Global Resource for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Research
TLDR
It is emphasized that chytridiomycosis in Asia is an important wildlife disease and it needs focussed research, as it is a dynamic front of pathogen diversity and virulence.
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