Amorphous intergranular phases control the properties of rodent tooth enamel

@article{Gordon2015AmorphousIP,
  title={Amorphous intergranular phases control the properties of rodent tooth enamel},
  author={Lyle M. Gordon and Michael J. Cohen and Keith William Macrenaris and Jill Dill Pasteris and Takele Seda and Derk Joester},
  journal={Science},
  year={2015},
  volume={347},
  pages={746 - 750}
}
Key trace minerals greatly strengthen teeth The outer layers of teeth are made up of nanowires of enamel that are prone to decay. Gordon et al. analyzed the composition of tooth enamel from a variety of rodents at the nanometer scale (see the Perspective by Politi). In regular and pigmented enamel, which contain different trace elements at varying boundary regions, two intergranular phases—magnesium amorphous calcium phosphate or a mixed-phase iron oxide—control the rates of enamel… 
Mapping residual organics and carbonate at grain boundaries and the amorphous interphase in mouse incisor enamel
TLDR
This work investigates the distribution of two important constituents of enamel, residual organic matter and inorganic carbonate and finds that organics, carbonate, and possibly water show distinct distribution patterns in the mouse enamel crystallites, at simple grain boundaries, and in the amorphous interphase at multiple grain boundaries.
Chemical Imaging of Interfaces and in Interphases in Tooth Enamel
Tooth enamel is the hardest tissue in vertebrates. Optimized to withstand the forces of mastication, it is composed of hydroxylapatite (OHAp) nanowires, thousands of which are bundled into rods that
Chemical Gradients in Human Enamel Crystallites.
TLDR
The two additional layers of hierarchy of hydroxylapatite crystallites in human dental enamel suggest a possible new model for biological control over crystal growth during amelogenesis, and hint at implications for the preservation of biomarkers during tooth development.
Atomic-scale compositional mapping reveals Mg-rich amorphous calcium phosphate in human dental enamel
TLDR
Atomic-scale study of human dental enamel reveals an intergranular amorphous phase thought to be responsible for tooth decay and supports the postclassical theory of amelogenesis (that is, enamel formation) and suggests that decay occurs via dissolution of the inter granular phase.
Novel Approach to Tooth Chemistry: Quantification of Human Enamel Apatite in Context for New Biomaterials and Nanomaterials Development
TLDR
These investigations are the milestones for a further new class of biomaterial and nanomaterial development for biomedical applications, where microdiffraction measurements reveal relative variation of energy levels during enamel transformations.
Monitoring Demineralization and Subsequent Remineralization of Human Teeth at the Dentin-Enamel Junction with Atomic Force Microscopy.
TLDR
The temporal evolution of the surface roughness indicates that the remineralization caused by the repair paste proceeds in two distinct successive phases.
Magnesium-Assisted Continuous Growth of Strongly Iron-Enriched Incisors.
TLDR
Using advanced analytical and imaging transmission electron microscopy techniques, innovative microstructural adjustments combined with astonishing compositional adaptations in incisors of coypu are identified, emphasizing the strong mutual correlation among the microstructure, chemical composition, and mechanical properties of mineralized dental tissues.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 54 REFERENCES
The chemistry of enamel caries.
TLDR
For the future, delivering fluoride deep into the lesion would appear to offer the prospect of improved repair, and elucidation of the role of organic material may also reveal putative mechanisms for encouraging repair and/or protecting the enamel mineral.
Chemical Events During Tooth Dissolution
  • G. S. Ingram
  • Materials Science
    Journal of dental research
  • 1990
TLDR
Information on chemical changes during enamel dissolution has been collected from investigations on hydroxyapatite solubility, enamel solubilities, artificial lesion formation, and natural caries, and an additional theory of coupled diffusion is described.
Magnesium and Carbonate in Enamel and Synthetic Apatites
TLDR
The observed decrease in the [Mg/Ca] of enamel and synthetic apatites after acid exposure may explain the observed 'preferential loss' of Mg and C03 in the initial stages of caries.
Magnesium in tooth enamel and synthetic apatites
TLDR
It appears that Mg in tooth enamel is to a very limited extent incorporated in the apatite lattice, the main portion being surface bound or present in a separate phase.
Variation in the pattern of acid etching of human dental enamel examined by scanning electron microscopy.
TLDR
The results suggest that there is no one specific etching pattern produced in human dental enamel by the action of acid solutions, and differences produced by acids are difficult to explain on the basis of variation in chemical composition, and crystallite orientation.
Nanoscale chemical tomography of buried organic–inorganic interfaces in the chiton tooth
TLDR
The results demonstrate that in the chiton tooth, individual organic fibres have different chemical compositions, and therefore probably different functional roles in controlling fibre formation and matrix–mineral interactions, and Atom-probe tomography is able to detect this chemical/structural heterogeneity by virtue of its high three-dimensional spatial resolution and sensitivity across the periodic table.
Atom probe tomography of apatites and bone-type mineralized tissues.
TLDR
This work shows that laser-pulsed atom probe tomography, a technique that combines subnanometer spatial resolution with unbiased chemical sensitivity, is uniquely suited to the task of reconstructing dentin structure.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...