Ammonium Carbonate is More Attractive than Apple and Hawthorn Fruit Volatile Lures to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington State

  title={Ammonium Carbonate is More Attractive than Apple and Hawthorn Fruit Volatile Lures to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington State},
  author={Wee L. Yee and Meralee J. Nash and Robert B. Goughnour and Dong H. Cha and Charles E. Linn and Jeffrey L. Feder},
  booktitle={Environmental entomology},
ABSTRACT The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In the eastern United States where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonella. However, the opposite may be true in the western United States. Here, we determined whether newly identified western apple and western hawthorn fruit volatiles are… 

Comparative Responses of Rhagoletis zephyria and Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Commercial and Experimental Sticky Traps and Odors in Washington State

Results suggest that RSs are better than yellow rectangles for surveying R. pomonella when snowberries are abundant, and if discrimination from R. zephyria is paramount, RSs with apple volatiles should be used.

Implications of Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894 (Diptera: Tephritidae) captures for apple maggot surveys and fly ecology in Washington State, U.S.A.

The greater relative abundance of native R. zephyria in drier counties implies that it is better adapted to central and eastern Washington than is the invasive R. pomonella or that habitat factors in these regions favor R.Zephyra, which could have implications for apple maggot surveys and understanding differences in the ecology of the flies.

Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

  • W. Yee
  • Biology
    The Canadian Entomologist
  • 2016
It is suggested that using lures with an AC loss rate of 0.19 mg/hour can maintain high R. indifferens captures while reducing non-target fly captures and thus can improve monitoring efficiency.

Development of a Low-Cost and Effective Trapping Device for Apple Maggot Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Monitoring and Control in Mexican Commercial Hawthorn Groves.

These trials open the door for future research into development of a conventional nonadherent trap to monitor or control R. pomonella in feral and commercial Mexican hawthorn and to assess the efficacy of different trap-lure combinations to monitor the pest.

Ammonium Acetate Enhances the Attractiveness of a Variety of Protein-Based Baits to Female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

It is indicated that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait's effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression.

Attractants for Rhagoletis Batava Obseuriosa, a Fruit Fly Pest of Sea Buckthorn

Results of the first field bioassays showed that ammonium acetate (AA) was a strong attractant for Rhagoletis batava obseuriosa adults, and a trend for ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium carbonate trapping an higher number of RBO adults than AA.

Attraction of the invasive Halyomorpha halys in its native Asian range to traps baited with semiochemical stimuli

Evaluating the response of H. halys adults, nymphs, and non-target organisms to traps baited with the aggregation pheromone, MDT alone, or in combination at three locations in the native range demonstrates that the pherOMone-based tools developed in the USA may be used for worldwide detection and surveillance programs for H. Halys and P. stali.

Inclusion of Specialist and Generalist Stimuli in Attract-and-Kill Programs: Their Relative Efficacy in Apple Maggot Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pest Management

This study contributes valuable information for developing a reliable attract-and-kill system for apple maggot, by evaluating the attractiveness of a generalist olfactory cue, ammonium carbonate, and the specialist o aroma cue, a five-component apple volatile blend, when included as a component of a red attracticidal sphere system.

Potential for attractive semiochemical lures in Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) management: a field study

One of the tested blends, which possibly represents the male sexual pheromone, has a promising potential for practical applications of synthetic lures in monitoring, mass-trapping or attract and kill strategies.



Identification of Host Fruit Volatiles from Domestic Apple (Malus domestica), Native Black Hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and Introduced Ornamental Hawthorn (C. monogyna) Attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella Flies from the Western United States

The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly


It is reported that western apple, black hawthorns, and ornamental hawthorn flies showed significantly increased levels of upwind‐directed flight to their respective natal compared to nonnatal fruit volatile blends, consistent with host race status.

Abundance of Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, Across Different Areas in Central Washington, with Special Reference to Black-Fruited Hawthorns

Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards.

Host plant use by apple maggot, western cherry fruit fly, and other Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in central Washington state

In south central Washington, the host breadth of R. pomonella is narrow perhaps because of the hot and dry conditions, low fly densities, and low host abundance outside of orchards, where it likely can be managed to meet the strict quarantine requirements of apple export.

Attraction of Apple Maggot Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Synthetic Fruit Volatile Compounds and Food Attractants in Michigan Apple Orchards

It is provided further evidence that baiting red-sticky sphere traps with the volatile blend without ammonium bait additives creates a highly effective and selective device for capturing apple maggot flies.

Antagonist effects of non‐host fruit volatiles on discrimination of host fruit by Rhagoletis flies infesting apple (Malus pumila), hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida)

The hypothesis that agonist and antagonist properties of fruit volatiles can play an important role in host recognition/discrimination by Rhagoletis flies is supported.

Attraction of apple maggot flies, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: tephritidae) of different physiological states to odour-baited traps in the presence and absence of food.

Results indicate that wild R. pomonella immigrating into apple orchards are primarily mature, and not hungry for protein, and behavioural control strategies are discussed in that context.

Evaluation of Traps for Apple Maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations Associated with Cherry and Hawthorn in Utah

In cherry and hawthorn, unbaited P Herocon AM traps with an external ammonium carbonate lure were significantly better over the entire season than the standard Pherocon AM panels, red spheres, and red spheres baited with the “Fein” blend of apple volatiles.

Apple Maggot in Oregon: A Possible New Threat to the Northwest Apple Industry

The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is a serious pest of apples in the northeastern United States and adjacent portions of southeastern Canada. Indigenous to this region, it is thought to

Field Tests of Some Hydrolyzed Proteins as Lures for the Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)

During the past decade the attractiveness of various hydrolyzed proteins to several species of tephritid flies has been established and these materials have been used in poison bait sprays, in fly