Ammonia distribution and excretion in fish

  title={Ammonia distribution and excretion in fish},
  author={David J. Randall and Patricia A Wright},
  journal={Fish Physiology and Biochemistry},
This paper reviews the literature concerning ammonia production, storage and excretion in fish. Ammonia is the end product of protein catabolism and is stored in the body of fish in high concentrations relative to basal excretion rates. Ammonia, if allowed to accumulate, is toxic and is converted to less toxic compounds or excreted. Like other weak acids and bases, ammonia is distributed between tissue compartments in relation to transmembrane pH gradients. NH3 is generally equilibrated between… CONTINUE READING