Ammonia Production, Excretion, Toxicity, and Defense in Fish: A Review

@inproceedings{Ip2010AmmoniaPE,
  title={Ammonia Production, Excretion, Toxicity, and Defense in Fish: A Review},
  author={Yuen K Ip and Shit Fun Chew},
  booktitle={Front. Physiology},
  year={2010}
}
Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through… CONTINUE READING