Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition

  title={Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition},
  author={Guoyao Wu},
  journal={Amino Acids},
  • Guoyao Wu
  • Published 20 March 2009
  • Biology
  • Amino Acids
AbstractRecent years have witnessed the discovery that amino acids (AA) are not only cell signaling molecules but are also regulators of gene expression and the protein phosphorylation cascade. Additionally, AA are key precursors for syntheses of hormones and low-molecular weight nitrogenous substances with each having enormous biological importance. Physiological concentrations of AA and their metabolites (e.g., nitric oxide, polyamines, glutathione, taurine, thyroid hormones, and serotonin… 
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It has become clear that a more complete understanding of arginine metabolism will require integration of information obtained from multiple approaches, including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics.
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  • A. Meijer
  • Biology, Chemistry
    The Journal of nutrition
  • 2003
It is concluded that amino acids are important regulators of major metabolic pathways that stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit protein degradation independent of changes in cell volume.
Emerging technologies for amino acid nutrition research in the post-genome era
It is expected that the molecular actions of AA on target tissues can be defined and that optimal dietary recommendations for these nutrients can be devised for individual humans (personalized nutrition) and animals (targeted feeding) in response to changes in physiological and pathological conditions.
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Evidence from both in vitro and in vivo animal studies shows that glutamine and arginine promote cell proliferation and exert differential cytoprotective effects in response to nutrient deprivation, oxidative injury, stress, and immunological challenge.
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Recent advances on gaseous signaling have greatly expanded basic knowledge of amino acid biochemistry and nutrition, which will aid in the design of new nutritional and pharmacological means to prevent and treat major health problems related to developmental biology and nutrient metabolism.
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In vitro and in vivo observations discussed in the present review highlight the importance of the key enzymes or transporters, glutamate dehydrogenase, the aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and the malate/aspartate shuttle, in the control of insulin secretion.