Amino acid metabolism in mammalian cell cultures.

@article{Eagle1959AminoAM,
  title={Amino acid metabolism in mammalian cell cultures.},
  author={Harry Eagle},
  journal={Science},
  year={1959},
  volume={130 3373},
  pages={
          432-7
        }
}
  • H. Eagle
  • Published 21 August 1959
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Science
The present article "is a progress report rather than a review and in large part summarizes studies from a single laboratory" on the minimal essential medium for cultivation of mammalian cells in either monolayer or suspension. Every cell culture examined, whether human or animal in origin, required at least 13 amino acids for survival and growth. All the cultured human cells examined were found to contain large amounts of glutathione, taurine, glutamine, ammonia, and glutamic acid. [The SCI… 
Glutamine Metabolism by Cultured Mammalian Cells
Cultured mammalian cells are grown in medium containing carbohydrates, amino acids, salts, vitamins, and growth factors. In the 1950’s Eagle [1] identified the basic composition of tissue culture
Biochemical selection systems for mammalian cells: The essential amino acids
The essential amino acid requirement of cultured mammalian cells can be satisfied by 19 amino acid derivatives. This finding (a) confirms the results of animal nutritional studies and (b) identifies
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID SYNTHESIS BY CULTURED MAMMALIAN CELLS IN THE PRESENCE OF OROTIC ACID.
Abstract Exogenous orotic acid (0.001 to 0.15 per cent) failed to produce a consistent increase in the rate of DNA synthesis in 6 lines of mammalian cells cultured in a complete medium over a period
Amino acid and vitamin requirements in mammalian cultured cells
TLDR
The amino acid and vitamin requirements of cultured cells, and a cell line (R-Y121B · cho) which propagates continuously in a chemically defined medium containing 11 amino acids, 7 vitamins, glucose and 6 ionic salts are discussed.
Nutritional requirements for growth of a mouse lymphoma in cell culture.
TLDR
Pyruvate can be replaced by α-keto-n-butyrate both for growth in mass culture and from isolated cells.
Metabolism of cells in tissue culture in vitro. II. Long-term cultivation of cell strains and cells isolated directly from animals in a stationary culture.
  • J. Michl
  • Biology, Medicine
    Experimental cell research
  • 1962
TLDR
A synthetic medium is described, supplemented with two protein fractions of calf serum that permits the continuous propagation of HeLa cells, L-cells and Chang liver cells and the establishing of cell lines from rabbit hearts and kidneys and Walker carcinosarcoma 256.
Limiting amino acid for protein synthesis with mammary cells in tissue culture.
TLDR
To identify the limiting amino acid in the minimal essential medium as published by Eagle for milk protein synthesis in rat mammary cells in tissue culture, two different experimental approaches were used.
Microstructural changes induced in mammalian cell cultures by omission and replacement of a single essential amino acid
Abstract Maintenance of a strain of HeLa cells on a culture medium deficient in a single essential amino acid, valine, gave rise to an immediate cessation of growth, a series of degenerative changes
The importance of ammonia in mammalian cell culture.
TLDR
The main source of the ammonia which accumulates in cell cultures is glutamine, which plays an important role in the metabolism of rapidly growing cells and strategies to overcome toxic ammonia accumulation include substitution of glutamine by glutamate or other amino acids, nutrient control and removal of ammonia from the culture medium.
The Production of Urea from Ornithine in Rat Hepatoma Cells Continuously Cultured in a Chemically Defined Medium
R-Y121B cells derived from a rat Reuber hepatoma cell line have been grown serially in arginine-and glutamine-deprived, ornithine-supplemented Eagle's minimum essential medium. This cell line has the
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References

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  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1955
TLDR
In media lacking a single essential amino acid; in which the cells would otherwise degenerate and die, normal growth and multiplication were obtained on the addition of a dipeptide containing the essential amino acids.
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TLDR
Partially purified from bovine serum, the protein growth factor has several marked effects upon mammalian cells in culture: it causes adherence of cells to a glass surface, and only in its presence cells assume a flattened, epithelial-like appearance.
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TLDR
The present paper deals with the ability of a number of carbohydrates to support the growth of normal and malignant cell strains in the minimal growth medium, and the active compounds differed widely not only with respect to the concentrations required for optimal growth, but also withrespect to the amounts metabolized per unit cell growth and the amounts of lactic acid concomitantly produced.
THE AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS OF MONKEY KIDNEY CELLS IN FIRST CULTURE PASSAGE
TLDR
Under the conditions of the present experiments, arginine, cystine, glutamine, histidine, and tyrosine proved necessary, over and above the 8 amino acids required for nitrogen balance in man, for survival and growth in monkey kidney cells.
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TLDR
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The utilization of glutamine, glutamic acid, and ammonia for the biosynthesis of nucleic acid bases in mammalian cell cultures.
TLDR
The present studies were undertaken to clarify the role of glutamine in the biosynthesis of the nucleic acid bases and show the amino groups of both guanine and cytosine are here shown to be derived from the amide nitrogen of glutamines.
The specific amino acid requirements of a mammalian cell (strain L) in tissue culture.
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  • Biology, Medicine
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  • 1955
TLDR
In such a limiting medium, the omission of a single essential growth factor now resulted in the early death of the culture, and it proved that growth was not prevented, and no single component could be rigorously characterized as essential to survival and growth.
The growth response of mammalian cells in tissue culture to L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid.
TLDR
In a medium containing the twelve amino acids previously shown to be essential, the seven demonstrably essential vitamins, glucose, electrolytes, and serum protein, both the mouse fibroblast and the human carcinoma cell degenerated and died unless the medium was supplemented with glutamine.
THE SPECIFIC AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS OF A HUMAN CARCINOMA CELL (STRAIN HELA) IN TISSUE CULTURE
  • H. Eagle
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of experimental medicine
  • 1955
The amino acid requirements of a human uterine carcinoma cell (HeLa strain) have been defined. The 12 compounds previously found to be essential for the growth of a mouse fibroblast proved similarly
The free amino acid pool of cultured human cells.
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  • Chemistry, Medicine
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TLDR
The cell lines used were strain HeLa, derived from uterine carcinoma, a variant HeLa strain which arose spontaneously, and two cultures derived from normal liver and conjunctiva, which resulted in rapid and extensive autolysis.
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