AIM The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in a group of periodontal maintenance patients, the effect of using a dentifrice and mouthrinse containing amine fluoride (AmF) and stannous fluoride (SnF2) as compared with a dentifrice and mouthrinse both containing sodium fluoride (NaF) with regard to their root caries experience. MATERIAL In total, 80 patients who had been treated for moderate-to-severe periodontitis agreed to participate in this study. Subjects received supportive periodontal therapy at regular intervals of 3-4 months for at least a period of 1 year. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: (1) the test group used an AmF/SnF2 dentifrice and mouthrinse and (2) the control group used an NaF-containing dentifrice and mouthrinse. Root caries was recorded at four sites per tooth at baseline and 24 months. RESULTS An increase in number of the exposed root surfaces was noted for both groups during the experimental period (p<0.05). The mean number of active caries lesions at baseline was 2.1 and 1.8 for the test group and control group, respectively. At 24 months, the corresponding values were 1.8 for the test and 2.2 for the control group. An increase of the mean number of restored surfaces was noted for the AmF/SnF2 group (from 7.3 to 13.4) and the control group (from 7.9 to 14.7) during the course of the study. This increase was found to be statistically significant for both groups in comparison with the baseline values (p< or =0.01). No statistically significant differences were noted between groups. Further analysis of the restored surfaces revealed that the major increase in number of the restorations was associated with restorations involving three to four root surfaces in the same tooth. Molars and premolars were the teeth receiving most new restorations. CONCLUSION The present study did not detect a difference in terms of root caries development between the two groups. Root caries development is a common finding associated with surfaces developing recession in patients once treated for periodontal problems.