Amide bond formation: beyond the myth of coupling reagents.

@article{Valeur2009AmideBF,
  title={Amide bond formation: beyond the myth of coupling reagents.},
  author={Eric Valeur and Mark Bradley},
  journal={Chemical Society reviews},
  year={2009},
  volume={38 2},
  pages={
          606-31
        }
}
Amide bond formation is a fundamentally important reaction in organic synthesis, and is typically mediated by one of a myriad of so-called coupling reagents. This critical review is focussed on the most recently developed coupling reagents with particular attention paid to the pros and cons of the plethora of "acronym" based reagents. It aims to demystify the process allowing the chemist to make a sensible and educated choice when carrying out an amide coupling reaction (179 references). 
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TLDR
In this tutorial review, highlights of the recent literature have been presented covering the key areas where metal catalysts have been used in amide bond formation. Expand
Transition-Metal-Free Activation of Amides by N-C Bond Cleavage.
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This personal account highlights recent remarkable advances in transition-metal-free activation of amides by N-C bond cleavage, focusing on both mechanistic aspects of ground-state-destabilization of the amide bond enabling formation of tetrahedral intermediates directly from amides with unprecedented selectivity and synthetic utility of the developed transformations. Expand
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TLDR
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Abstract Phosphorus pentoxide and DMAP are used for amide bond formation from carboxylic acids and amines. Dipeptides and amides have been synthesized using this reagent in 42–77% yields and >99%Expand
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Abstract Vinylogy is a widely accepted principle involving the transfer of electronic chemical character through a double bond, and many reactions have been developed by applying this concept. InExpand
Iodine‐Catalyzed Formation of Amide bond: Efficient Strategy for the Synthesis of Aromatic Primary Amides
A practical and efficient methodology for the synthesis of aromatic primary amides by the reaction of benzylic alcohols and aqueous ammonia in the presence of I2/TBHP system in acetonitrile wasExpand
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Abstract A metal-free oxidative coupling of methyl ketones and primary amines to amides has been developed. The reaction tolerates a variety of functional groups, and is operationally simple. TheExpand
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TLDR
The developed protocol using NMI-TfCl has been found to be effective and tolerant for the amide bond formation reaction of a series of electronically deactivating and sterically challenging amines. Expand
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References

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Abstract The potential application of 1-oxo-1-chlorophospholane (5) as a novel reagent for the in situ activation of Nα -protected amino acids for use in peptide bond forming reactions has beenExpand
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Abstract A series of peptides has been prepared using an o -hydroxybenzenesulfonyl chloride as the condensation reagent. Experimentally, the coupling is a one pot two-steps reaction: formation andExpand
Design and Synthesis of New Immonium‐Type Coupling Reagents
A new family of immonium-type coupling reagents is described here. The differences in the carbocation skeletons of these reagents can be correlated with differences in stability and thus reactivity.Expand
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PS-IIDQ: a supported coupling reagent for efficient and general amide bond formation
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Carboxamides are prepared in high yields by dehydration condensation between nearly equimolar amounts of free carboxylic acids and amines both of which involve secondary or tertiary alkyl substitutedExpand
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Abstract Novel HOBt- and HOAt-derived immonium type coupling reagents BDMP, BPMP and AOMP were shown to be very efficient for peptide synthesis with high reactivity, low racemization and good yields.Expand
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TLDR
A reaction in which primary amines are directly acylated by equimolar amounts of alcohols to produce amides and molecular hydrogen in high yields and high turnover numbers is reported. Expand
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