American Graffiti: Effects of Authority and Reactance Arousal

  title={American Graffiti: Effects of Authority and Reactance Arousal},
  author={James W. Pennebaker and Deborah Yates Sanders},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  pages={264 - 267}
High or low threats to subjects' freedom to write on toilet stall walls were attributed to either a high or low authority source. Graffiti written on the threatening placards were directly related to both authority and threat level. The results were inter preted as responses to reactance.arousal. Conceptual problems deal ing with authority are discussed. 
Coercive potential and face-sensitivity: The effects of authority and directives in social confrontation
Individuals sometimes feel compelled to confront a rule‐violator. Because the goal of a confrontation is to stop the objectionable action, the violator may feel that his or her autonomy is being
Rebel Without a (Conscious) Cause: Priming a Nonconscious Goal for Psychological Reactance
Psychological Reactance is typically studied using conscious manipulations and individual-difference measures. We hypothesized that, similar to other goals, a reactance motive can be primed
Reactance Theory: A Test with Collegiate Drinking
In a national sample of 3,375 college students during the 1987–1988 academic year, significantly more underage students were found to drink, in marked contrast to the pattern documented by research extending back to the early 1950s and interpreted as supporting reactance theory.
Cultural Differences in Psychological Reactance: Responding to Censorship
We examined cultural differences in psychological reactance in response to a threat of social media censorship among Iranian Canadians, European Canadians, and East Asian Canadians. Results indicated
Assertive Environmental Advertising and Reactance: Differences Between South Koreans and Americans
In three studies, the authors show that Americans and South Koreans react differently to environmental advertising campaigns featuring assertive messages that threaten autonomous freedoms. The
The Role of Leadership Efficacy and Stereotype Activation in Women's Identification with Leadership
The primary goal of this research was to examine the role of leadership efficacy as a moderator of domain identification responses to the think-leader-think-male stereotype. Manipulating stereotype
The Indirect Effect of Source Information on Psychological Reactance Against Antismoking Messages Through Perceived Bias
Findings demonstrate that an editorial advocating antismoking campaigns from ideologically congruent media is perceived as less biased than the same editorial from hostile media, which is linked to perceived threat to freedom and linked to psychological reactance against the editorial.
Following and Resisting Body Image Ideals in Advertising: The Moderating Role of Extrinsic Contingency Focus
Extrinsic contingency focus reflects people's tendency to derive self-esteem by meeting socially (versus personally) defined standards. Three studies examined the relationship between extrinsic


Opinion change as a function of communicator power and threats to opinion freedom
  • 1966
Requests for reprints should be sent to the authors in care of the Psychology Department
    Maintenance workers did not survey or clean the restrooms during testing. The three instances of placard removal were in different restrooms at different times of the day
      Wicklund and the PSPB reviewers for their comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript