American Graffiti: Effects of Authority and Reactance Arousal

@article{Pennebaker1976AmericanGE,
  title={American Graffiti: Effects of Authority and Reactance Arousal},
  author={James W. Pennebaker and Deborah Yates Sanders},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  year={1976},
  volume={2},
  pages={264 - 267}
}
High or low threats to subjects' freedom to write on toilet stall walls were attributed to either a high or low authority source. Graffiti written on the threatening placards were directly related to both authority and threat level. The results were inter preted as responses to reactance.arousal. Conceptual problems deal ing with authority are discussed. 
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Maintenance workers did not survey or clean the restrooms during testing. The three instances of placard removal were in different restrooms at different times of the day
Requests for reprints should be sent to the authors in care of the Psychology Department
Wicklund and the PSPB reviewers for their comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript