American = White?

  title={American = White?},
  author={Thierry Devos and Mahzarin R. Banaji},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={88 3},
  • T. Devos, M. Banaji
  • Published 2005
  • Psychology
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
Six studies investigated the extent to which American ethnic groups (African, Asian, and White) are associated with the category "American." Although strong explicit commitments to egalitarian principles were expressed in Study 1, Studies 2-6 consistently revealed that both African and Asian Americans as groups are less associated with the national category "American" than are White Americans. Under some circumstances, a dissociation between mean levels of explicit beliefs and implicit… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Gay Asian Americans Are Seen as More American Than Asian Americans Who Are Presumed Straight
Four studies investigate whether gay Asian Americans are stereotyped as more American than Asian Americans who are presumed straight. Gay Asian American men (Study 1) and women (Study 2) were rated
Americanness and the “Other” Americans
American identity has become a racialized norm that is primarily applied to those racially identified as White. We examine what it means to be an American from the perspective of racial and ethnic
Who Is American? Demographic and Social-Contextual Correlates of Identification as a “Typical” American Among Diverse Asian Americans
ABSTRACT Asian Americans are at risk for marginalization and lower rates of American identification. This descriptive study examines demographic and social-contextual correlates of identifying as a
"Where are you really from?": Asian Americans and identity denial.
Five studies investigate identity denial, the situation in which an individual is not recognized as a member of an important in-group, and captures the experience of less prototypical group members who desire to have their common in-groups identity recognized by fellow group members.
American Identity Revisited: The Relation Between National, Ethnic, and Personal Identity in a Multiethnic Sample of Emerging Adults
The present mixed-methods study investigated meanings and affective valences ascribed to “American identity” and the ways in which these meanings and valences relate to ethnic and personal identity.
All Americans are Not Perceived as “True” Americans: Implications for Policy
The United States is a nation of immigrants with significant ethnic and racial diversity. Yet, American identity is associated with European-Americans and their cultural values, defining ethnic
This Land Is (Not) Your Land: Race and Ascripted Americanness in the Formation of Attitudes about Immigrants
ABSTRACT Race consistently patterns anti-immigrant bias. However, it is less clear if all racial groups define “being American” in the same way. This work explores the ways ascribed characteristics
National and Racial-Ethnic Identification
This mixed-methods study explored early adolescents’ national American identification, and meanings attached to being American. Participants (N = 102; 51% female; ages 10-12, X ¯ = 11.45, SD = .70)
White Categorical Ambiguity: Exclusion of Middle Eastern Americans From the White Racial Category
Despite legal classification as White, Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) Americans experience high levels of discrimination, suggesting low social status precludes them from accessing the White
Equality for all? White Americans' willingness to address inequality with Asian and African Americans.
White Americans' willingness to engage in dialogues about intergroup commonalities and power inequalities with Asian and African Americans was examined and the role of common in-group identity (as Americans) on willingness for dialogue about inequality was explored.


Ethnicity in America and Feeling “American”
The results showed that African Americans felt American but felt that they were not perceived as such by White Americans, and feelings of inclusion increased with length of residence.
Subgroup prejudice based on skin color among Hispanics in the United States and Latin America
Abstract Two experiments examined the influence of skin color on American Hispanics' and Chileans' attitudes towards their ethnic ingroup and toward subgroups within their ingroup. When implicit
Sophistication and the Antecedents of Whites' Racial Policy Attitudes: Racism, Ideology, and Affirmative Action in America
A number of researchers have argued that the effects of prejudice on the racial policy attitudes and general political beliefs of white Americans may be restricted to the poorly educated and
Automatic Preference for White Americans: Eliminating the Familiarity Explanation
Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), recent experiments have demonstrated a strong and automatic positive evaluation of White Americans and a relatively negative evaluation of African
Evidence for racial prejudice at the implicit level and its relationship with questionnaire measures.
The magnitude of this implicit prejudice effect correlated reliably with participants' scores on explicit racial attitude measures, indicating that people's spontaneous stereotypic associations are consistent with their more controlled responses.
Implicit and Explicit Ethnocentrism: Revisiting the Ideologies of Prejudice
Investigating relationships among individual differences in implicit and explicit prejudice, right-wing ideology, and rigidity in thinking leads to the conclusion that implicit ethnocentrism exists and it is related to and distinct from explicit ethnocentRism.
The Interface Between Ethnic and Social System Attachment: The Differential Effects of Hierarchy‐Enhancing and Hierarchy‐Attenuating Environments
Social dominance theory distinguishes between hierarchy-enhancing environments, which promote inequality between groups (e.g., American society), and hierarchy-attenuating environments, which promote
Minority Members' Implicit Attitudes: Automatic Ingroup Bias As A Function Of Group Status
Abstract We compared implicit and explicit ingroup bias across four minority groups who ranged in status from high (Jews and Asians) to medium (overweight people) to low (poor people). Minorities
Implicit attitudes and racism: Effects of word familiarity and frequency on the implicit association test.
Abstract Greenwald, McGhee and Schwartz (1998) described a new method-the Implicit Association Test (IAT)-for unobtrusively measuring racial attitudes. This article assesses the validity of the IAT
What Does It Mean to Be an American? Patriotism, Nationalism, and American Identity After 9/11
The period of heightened nationalism in the United States that followed the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 provided unusual conditions for investigating issues surrounding the distinction