Amblyopia is a preventable cause of visual loss in children that may be permanent unless it is detected and treated early. It may be caused by strabismus, refractive errors, or cataracts. Primary strabismus may lead to loss of vision from amblyopia and the loss of binocularity. Secondary strabismus may be a sign of primary visual loss in one or both eyes. The most serious disorder that may present as secondary strabismus is retinoblastoma. It is imperative to detect retinoblastoma early because of its morbidity and mortality. Amblyopia is detected by assessing the visual acuity of each eye. Strabismus is detected by using the corneal light reflex test and the cover test. Focusing problems are detected by assessing the visual acuity and the red reflex. Cataracts and retinoblastoma may be detected by examining the red reflex of the eye. Treatment of amblyopia consists of correcting the amblyogenic factor with appropriate glasses and surgery. The preferred eye is patched with an adhesive patch to stimulate visual development in the amblyopic eye. The pediatrician plays a crucial role in the early detection of amblyopia, strabismus, and cataracts. The key to successful visual outcome is early recognition by the pediatrician, referral to the pediatric ophthalmologist, and prompt treatment.