Amblyopia: Challenges and Opportunities The Lasker/IRRF Initiative for Innovation in Vision Science

  title={Amblyopia: Challenges and Opportunities The Lasker/IRRF Initiative for Innovation in Vision Science},
  author={E. Quinlan and P. Lukasiewicz},
  journal={Visual Neuroscience},
The shift in ocular dominance (OD) of binocular neurons induced by monocular deprivation is the canonical model of synaptic plasticity confined to a postnatal critical period. Developmental constraints on this plasticity not only lend stability to the mature visual cortical circuitry but also impede the ability to recover from amblyopia beyond an early window. Advances with mouse models utilizing the power of molecular, genetic, and imaging tools are beginning to unravel the circuit, cellular… Expand
6 Citations
Impact of Amblyopia on the Central Nervous System
There is some evidence that amblyopia’s impact on the CNS depends on its etiology, with different patterns of results for strabismic and anisometropic amblyopes, and simultaneous collection of retinal, neural, and perceptual measures should be employed. Expand
Optimizing Visual Cortex Parameterization with Error-Tolerant Teichmuller Map in Retinotopic Mapping
An integrated approach that parameterizes the cortical surface, such that the parametric coordinates linearly relates the visual coordinate is proposed, which helps the smoothing of noisy retinotopic maps and obtains neurophysiological insights in human vision systems. Expand
Binocular Summation and Suppression of Contrast Sensitivity in Strabismus, Fusion and Amblyopia
It is concluded that monocular and binocular contrast sensitivity deficits define important characteristics of amblyopia and strabismus that are not captured by visual acuity alone and can be measured efficiently using the quick CSF. Expand
Feasibility of a school-based vision screening program to detect undiagnosed visual problems in kindergarten children in Ontario
It is found that in-school vision screening with follow-up eye examinations is an effective strategy for identifying at-risk children and placing them in eye care before grade 1. Expand
Comparison of 2Win and plusoptiX A12R refractometers with Retinomax handheld autorefractor keratometer.
In manifest conditions, the accuracy of the 2Win and plusoptiX A12R refractometers is low in hyperopia and astigmatism, but the devices are well correlated with each other, and both have high specificity and low sensitivity inhyperopia, resulting in the underestimation of hyperopic refractive error. Expand
Choosing appropriate tools and referral criteria for vision screening of children aged 4–5 years in Canada: a quantitative analysis
A school-based screening programme correctly identified 84% of those kindergarten children who were found to have a visual problem by a cyclopleged optometry exam, revealing how accuracy varies with different combinations of screening tools and referral criteria. Expand


Darkness Alters Maturation of Visual Cortex and Promotes Fast Recovery from Monocular Deprivation
It is shown that a 10 day period of complete darkness reverses maturation of stable cytoskeleton components in kitten visual cortex and also results in rapid elimination of, or even immunity from, visual deficits linked to amblyogenic rearing by MD. Expand
Plasticity of Binocularity and Visual Acuity Are Differentially Limited by Nogo Receptor
It is demonstrated the plasticity of binocularity and acuity are separable and differentially regulated by the neuronal nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) and its expression is required more extensively within brain circuitry to limit improvement of visual acuity following chronic deprivation. Expand
Experience-dependent reactivation of ocular dominance plasticity in the adult visual cortex
Environmental enrichment (EE), a condition of increased sensory-motor stimulation, reactivates OD plasticity in the adult visual cortex, as assessed with both visual evoked potentials and single-unit recordings and triggers a cascade of molecular events that allow the reinstatement of neural plasticity. Expand
Brief dark exposure restored ocular dominance plasticity in aging mice and after a cortical stroke
It is demonstrated that short-term DE can restore OD-plasticity after MD in both adult and aging mice and even preserved plasticity after a cortical stroke, most likely mediated by reducing intracortical inhibition. Expand
Plasticity of the Visual Cortex and Treatment of Amblyopia
Both animal and human work has established that amblyopia is not simply a monocular deficit, and therefore the most promising new non-invasive approaches force the two eyes to cooperate as opposed to conventional procedures that severely penalise the good eye. Expand
Experience-Dependent Plasticity of Binocular Responses in the Primary Visual Cortex of the Mouse
It is shown that an activity-dependent, competitive form of synaptic plasticity that obeys correlation-based rules operates in the developing primary visual cortex of the mouse, and plasticity of both geniculocortical and intracortical connections is demonstrated. Expand
A disinhibitory microcircuit initiates critical period plasticity in visual cortex
These findings define the microcircuit changes initiating competitive plasticity during critical periods of cortical development and show that the restoration of evoked firing rates of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons by PV-specific disinhibition is a key step in the progression of ODP. Expand
Stereopsis and amblyopia: A mini-review
A review of the various approaches to treating amblyopia (patching, perceptual learning, videogames) suggests that there are several promising new approaches to recovering stereopsis in both anisometropic and strabismic amblyopes. Expand
Genetic control of experience‐dependent plasticity in the visual cortex
Interestingly, the increase in undeprived ipsilateral eye responses was not correlated to the decrease in deprived contralateral eye responses, suggesting that the size of these components of OD plasticity are not genetically controlled by only a single mechanism. Expand
Treatment of amblyopia in the adult: insights from a new rodent model of visual perceptual learning
This review will survey recent work regarding the impact of visual perceptual learning on amblyopia, with a special focus on a new experimental model of perceptual learning in the amblyopic rat. Expand