Amazonia Through Time: Andean Uplift, Climate Change, Landscape Evolution, and Biodiversity

  title={Amazonia Through Time: Andean Uplift, Climate Change, Landscape Evolution, and Biodiversity},
  author={Carina Hoorn and Frank P. Wesselingh and Hans ter Steege and Mauricio A. Berm{\'u}dez and Andr{\'e}s Mora and Jan Sevink and Isabel Sanmart{\'i}n and Andrea S{\'a}nchez-Meseguer and Cajsa Lisa Anderson and J. Figueiredo and Carlos Jaramillo and Douglas Riff and Francisco Ricardo Negri and Henry Hooghiemstra and John G. Lundberg and Tanja Stadler and Tiina E. S{\"a}rkinen and Alexandre Antonelli},
  pages={927 - 931}
The Making of Amazonian Diversity The biodiversity of the Amazon Basin is legendary, but the processes by which it has been generated have been debated. In the late 20th century the prevalent view was that the engine of diversity was repeated contraction and expansion of forest refugia during the past 3 million years or so. Hoorn et al. (p. 927) analyze findings from a diverse range of disciplines, including molecular phylogeny, ecology, sedimentology, structural geology, and palaeontology, to… 

Evolution of Neotropical biodiversity : phylogeny, ecology, and biogeography of Mesoeucrocodylia (Vertebrata Crocodyliformes) from the Miocene of Peruvian Amazonia

Under the influential role of the Andean range, western Amazonia developed distinctive environmental conditions that ultimately led to divergent, higher biodiversity within the Neotropics. Although

Diversity and evolution of Amazonian birds: implications for conservation and biogeography.

Genomic information, coupled with knowledge of Earth's history, especially the evolution of the Amazonian landscape, presents fascinating possibilities for understanding the mechanisms that govern the origin and maintenance of diversity patterns in one of the most diverse regions of the world.

Andean Tectonics and Mantle Dynamics as a Pervasive Influence on Amazonian Ecosystem

It is shown that the evolution of the drainage pattern gradually reduced the area of sedimentation derived from the Guiana and Brazilian shields while expanded the Andean derived deposits during the Miocene, affecting the nutrient availability.

Amazonia is the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity

It is found that there has been extensive interchange of evolutionary lineages among different regions and biomes, over the course of tens of millions of years, and Amazonia stands out as the primary source of diversity, which can be mainly explained by the total amount of time Amazonian lineages have occupied the region.

What has become of the refugia hypothesis to explain biological diversity in Amazonia?

It is concluded that the refugia hypothesis alone cannot explain the diversification of the complex Amazonian diversity, and perhaps it was not the most important diversification mechanism.

Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): Origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

Abstract. This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that

The Origin and Evolution of Amazonian Species Diversity

We identify key interdisciplinary questions and approaches to understanding the paleogeographic and biotic history of Amazonia. We discuss the importance of comparing evolutionary taxonomic units

The ecological biogeography of Amazonia

The Amazon drainage basin (Amazonia) contains the largest continuous area of tropical rain- forest in the world and is the most species-rich terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. In biogeographical terms,

Climate change and topography as drivers of Latin American biome dynamics

This thesis focuses on Latin America. It uses paleobotanic data which are indicative of past vegetation and climate change on the basis of relationships between fossils left by the modern vegetation

Biotic and Landscape Evolution in an Amazonian Contact Zone: Insights from the Herpetofauna of the Tapajós River Basin, Brazil

The Amazon basin region, which harbors the largest river system in the world, and which is drained by the Amazon River, has experienced several geomorphological and climatic changes over time. These



Diversity dynamics of Miocene mammals in relation to the history of tectonism and climate

The Miocene rodent record suggests that the elevational diversity gradient is a transient feature arising during particular episodes of Earth's history, and interactions between tectonic activity and climate change stimulate diversification in mammals.

Tracing the impact of the Andean uplift on Neotropical plant evolution

Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed the major role played by the uplift of the Andes in the extraordinary diversification of the Neotropical flora. These studies, however, have typically

Cenozoic Plant Diversity in the Neotropics

A good correlation between diversity fluctuations and changes in global temperature was found, suggesting that tropical climate change may be directly driving the observed diversity pattern.

Island radiation on a continental scale: Exceptional rates of plant diversification after uplift of the Andes

  • C. HughesR. Eastwood
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2006
Data from other genera indicate that lupines are one of a set of similarly rapid Andean plant radiations, continental in scale and island-like in stimulus, suggesting that the high-elevation Andean flora provides a system that rivals other groups, including cichlids, for understanding rapid species diversification.


A phylogenetic analysis of habitat specificity of 35 western Amazonian species from the genera Protium, Crepidospermum, and Tetragastris shows association with terrace soils to be the probable ancestral state in the group, with subsequent speciation events onto clay and white‐sand soils suggesting edaphic heterogeneity was an important driver of speciation in the Protieae in the Amazon basin.

Speciation timing and neotropical biodiversity: the Tertiary–Quaternary debate in the light of molecular phylogenetic evidence

  • V. Rull
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Molecular ecology
  • 2008
A thorough review of the available literature on DNA molecular dating shows that the Tertiary–Quaternary debate no longer makes sense and that the origin of present‐day biodiversity patterns at both local and global scales is unraveled.

The role of immigrants in the assembly of the South American rainforest tree flora.

  • R. PenningtonC. Dick
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2004
Data on the community-level similarity between South American and palaeotropical rainforests is presented, and it is suggested that most taxonomic similarity derives from trans-oceanic dispersal, rather than a shared Gondwanan history.