Amantadine: The journey from fighting flu to treating Parkinson disease

  title={Amantadine: The journey from fighting flu to treating Parkinson disease},
  author={Grant Hubsher and Mohammad N. Haider and Michael S. Okun},
Objective:To explore how amantadine transitioned from an anti-flu drug to antiparkinsonian agent. Methods:A review of the historical literature on the use of amantadine from 1966 to the present was performed. Results:Amantadine was originally introduced and utilized as an antiviral medication. A single patient noticed relief in her Parkinson disease (PD) symptoms after taking amantadine for a flu infection, and this observation sparked an interest, and several important studies that eventually… 
Amantadine hydrochloride 1 is an antiviral drug used in the prevention and treatment of influenza A infections. It has also been used for alleviating early symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Several
Amantadine Revisited: A Contender for Initial Treatment in Parkinson’s Disease?
The best practice for the initiation of symptomatic motor treatment for Parkinson’s disease is an ongoing topic of debate and many practitioners opt for early initiation of levodopa formulations, avoiding dopamine agonists to circumvent potential deleterious side effects, namely impulse control disorder.
Repurposing Drugs to Treat Heart and Brain Illness
The focus of this review is to survey strategies for the selection of drug repurposing candidates and provide representative case studies where drug Repurposing strategies were used to discover therapeutics for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, with a focus on anti-inflammatory processes where new drug alternatives are needed.
Pharmacokinetic drug evaluation of safinamide mesylate for the treatment of mid-to-late stage Parkinson’s disease
  • T. Müller
  • Biology, Medicine
    Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology
  • 2017
Savinamide will help to reduce dosing of levodopa but also of dopamine agonists during long term treatment in patients with Parkinson’s disease, as its pharmacological profile includes reversible monoamine oxidase B inhibition, blockage of voltage-dependent sodium channels, modulation of calcium channels and abnormal glutamate release.
Efficacy and safety of amantadine for the treatment of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
Amantadine immediate and extended-release are effective and safe for the treatment of LIDs and may have possible effects on other PD symptoms such as apathy or fatigue.
Chemical management of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease patients
Treatment of dyskinesias is still challenging and largely due to their side effects, so future research should focus on developing treatments that can provide continuous dopaminergic delivery throughout the day in a noninvasive manner.
The Role of Pathogens and Anti-Infective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease, from Etiology to Therapeutic Implications
A series of anti-infective agents exhibit surprising neuroprotective effects via various mechanisms, such as interfering with α-synuclein aggregation, inhibiting neuroinflammation, attenuating oxidative stress, and preventing from cell death, independent of their antimicrobial effects.
Emerging drugs for the treatment of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia: an update
The pharmacology of drugs investigated for LID may be too selective; therefore, evaluating combinations of drugs is worthy of consideration as is the repurposing of existing drugs with multiple pharmacological targets.
Drug repurposing strategies of relevance for Parkinson’s disease
A summary of the different strategies for drug repurposing, from large‐scale epidemiological correlation analysis through to single‐gene transcriptional approaches are presented, and their utility is illustrated using examples taken from other disorders.
Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of rasagiline mesylate for Parkinson’s disease
  • T. Müller
  • Medicine, Biology
    Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology
  • 2014
This so-called evidence based research suggests that rasagiline is an alternative to the catechol-O-methyltransferase-inhibitor entacapone, in the treatment of wearing-off phenomena.


Amantadine in Parkinson's disease. Review of more than two years' experience.
Patients with Parkinson's disease treated with amantadine hydrochloride alone or in conjunction with other anti-Parkinsonism medications over a 2 1/2-year period showed a favorable response to the drug at 60 days and thereafter.
Amantadine for Dyskinesias in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Results from the present study demonstrated that amantadine exhibited efficacious effects against dyskinesias in 60–70% of patients.
Antiviral Activity of 1-Adamantanamine (Amantadine)
I-Adamantanamine (amantadine) causes a selective, reproducible, dose-related inhibition of influenza infections in tissue culture, chick embryos, and mice and survivors are immune to a challenge infection with the original infecting virus.
The role of serendipity in drug discovery
  • T. Ban
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Dialogues in clinical neuroscience
  • 2006
“Serendipity” in drug discovery implies the finding of one thing while looking for something else, and this was the case in six of the twelve serendipitous discoveries reviewed in this paper.
Tissue culture techniques. HeLa cells were infected with strains of parainfluenza viruses, types 2 (Greer) or 3 (C 243), obtained from R. M. Chanock, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. The