Aluminum adjuvant linked to gulf war illness induces motor neuron death in mice

  title={Aluminum adjuvant linked to gulf war illness induces motor neuron death in mice},
  author={M. S. Petrik and Margaret C. Wong and R. C. Tabata and Robert F. Garry and C. A. Shaw},
  journal={NeuroMolecular Medicine},
Gulf War illness (GWI) affects a significant percentage of veterans of the 1991 conflict, but its origin remains unknown. Associated with some cases of GWI are increased incidences of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological disorders. Whereas many environmental factors have been linked to GWI, the role of the anthrax vaccine has come under increasing scrutiny. Among the vaccine’s potentially toxic components are the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and squalene. To examine whether… 

Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity

The literature demonstrates clearly negative impacts of aluminum on the nervous system across the age span, and many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome.

Aluminum?s Role in CNS-immune System Interactions leading to Neurological Disorders

A unified theory of immune and nervous system interactions is proposed, capturing a progression from a local response to a systemic response initiated by disruption of water-based interfaces of exposed cells.

Link between Aluminum and the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease: The Integration of the Aluminum and Amyloid Cascade Hypotheses

The aim is to revisit the link between aluminum and AD and to integrate aluminum and amyloid cascade hypotheses in the context of β-amyloid oligomerization and the interactions with other metals.

Aluminum as a CNS and Immune System Toxin Across the Life Span.

  • C. Shaw
  • Psychology
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 2018
It is argued that the exposure to humans and animals to this element needs to be reduced if the authors are to diminish some CNS and immune system disorders.

Biopersistence and Brain Translocation of Aluminum Adjuvants of Vaccines

Brain translocation of alum particles is linked to a Trojan horse mechanism previously described for infectious particles (HIV, HCV), that obeys to CCL2, signaling the major inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant.

The neurotoxicity of environmental aluminum is still an issue.




Cellular Immune Activation in Gulf War Veterans

Data show that multisymptom illness in Gulf War veterans is characterized by ongoing Th1-type immune activation and a biased generation of memory cells secreting the suppressor cytokine, IL-10.

Antibodies to squalene in Gulf War syndrome.

All GWS patients immunized for service in Desert Shield/Desert Storm who did not deploy, but had the same signs and symptoms as those who did deploy, had antibodies to squalene.

The long term safety of anthrax vaccine Pyridostigmine Bromide (PB) tablets, and other risk factors among Reserve Component Veterans of the first Persian Gulf War

It is recommended that PB tablets, ciprofloxacin pills, as well as insect repellants and insecticides be used with caution, especially not exceeding recommended daily amounts.

Vaccination alone or in combination with pyridostigmine promotes and prolongs activation of stress‐activated kinases induced by stress in the mouse brain

The working hypothesis is that stress, vaccination, and PY may synergistically induce activation of MKK4 and JNK in the brain, leading to over‐activation of these kinases and neurological injuries in GWI.

Theoretical Accounts of Gulf War Syndrome: From Environmental Toxins to Psychoneuroimmunology and Neurodegeneration

Evidence is presented that the pattern of symptoms produced by the pro-inflammatory cytokines reflects a shift in immune system functioning towards a (T-helper-1) Th1 profile, which contrasts with other immunological accounts of GWS that suggest that the immune system demonstrates a shift to a Th2 (allergy) profile.

Aluminum Neurotoxicity — Potential Role in the Pathogenesis of Neurofibrillary Tangle Formation

  • D. PerlW. Pendlebury
  • Biology
    Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences / Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
  • 1986
This ongoing research still cannot ascribe a causal role of aluminum in the pathogenesis of neurofibrillary tangle formation; however, it does suggest that environmental factors may play an important part in the formation of this abnormality.

Antibodies to squalene in recipients of anthrax vaccine.

Results suggest that the production of ASA in GWS patients is linked to the presence of squalene in certain lots of anthrax vaccine.

Analysis of neurological disease in four dimensions: insight from ALS-PDC epidemiology and animal models

Low-calcium, high-aluminum diet-induced motor neuron pathology in cynomolgus monkeys

Experiments on juvenile cynomolgus monkeys exhibited mild calcium and aluminum deposition and degenerative changes, compatible with those of early ALS and PD, in motor neurons of the spinal cord, brain stem, substantia nigra and cerebrum.