Altruistic defenders in a gall-forming aphid of the tribe Hormaphidini (Homoptera, Aphididae, Hormaphidinae) on its primary host

@article{Shibao2003AltruisticDI,
  title={Altruistic defenders in a gall-forming aphid of the tribe Hormaphidini (Homoptera, Aphididae, Hormaphidinae) on its primary host},
  author={Harunobu Shibao and Takema Fukatsu},
  journal={Insectes Sociaux},
  year={2003},
  volume={50},
  pages={167-173}
}
Summary. We found defensive behavior in the aphid Hamamelistes miyabei on its primary host plant, Hamamelis japonica, where it forms a spiny gall. Introduction of moth caterpillars into the galls elicited attacking behavior of aphid nymphs with their stylet. Although older nymphs sometimes attacked, first-instar nymphs were the main defenders. Immature and mature galls contained a large proportion of first-instar nymphs. Open galls still contained first-instar nymphs, but the proportion was… 
Defensive Nymphs of the Woolly Aphid Thoracaphis kashifolia (Hemiptera) on the Oak Quercus glauca
TLDR
Aphid nymphs with enlarged fore- and mid-legs were found from woolly colonies of Thoracaphis kashifolia on leaves of the evergreen Quercus glauca in Japan and it was shown that they grasped an introduced moth larva with their legs and some inserted their stylets deep into the body.
Plant Manipulation by Gall-Forming Social Aphids for Waste Management
TLDR
In conclusion, gall-forming aphids induce novel plant phenotypes to manage the waste problems by manipulating plant morphogenesis and physiology for their own sake.
First record of anti-predator behavior in the gall-forming aphid Mordwilkoja vagabunda
TLDR
These synchronized, rhythmic movements may be anti-predator defense strategies comparable to the collective twitching and kicking response observed in colonies of Aphis nerii and other aphid species.
Buying time for colony mates: the anti-predatory function of soldiers in the eusocial aphid Ceratovacuna japonica (Homoptera, Hormaphidinae)
TLDR
It is shown that soldiers can reduce the rate of predation on their colony mates without killing the predators, and a defensive strategy that delays predation may buy the soldiers’ colony mates time to reproduce or to escape from the predator.
An insect-induced novel plant phenotype for sustaining social life in a closed system
TLDR
A sophisticated biological solution to the waste problem in the closed system is reported: the gall inner surface is specialized for absorbing water, whereby honeydew is promptly removed via the plant vascular system.
A Review of the Biology of Cerataphidini (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Hormaphidinae), Focusing Mainly on Their Life Cycles, Gall Formation, and Soldiers
TLDR
The life cycles of cerataphidines are basically the same as those of the subfamily Eriosomatinae, but in tropical and subtropical regions their life cycles are not very rigidly tuned to seasonal changes in the climate if any.

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