Altruistic defenders in a gall-forming aphid of the tribe Hormaphidini (Homoptera, Aphididae, Hormaphidinae) on its primary host

  title={Altruistic defenders in a gall-forming aphid of the tribe Hormaphidini (Homoptera, Aphididae, Hormaphidinae) on its primary host},
  author={Harunobu Shibao and Takema Fukatsu},
  journal={Insectes Sociaux},
Summary. We found defensive behavior in the aphid Hamamelistes miyabei on its primary host plant, Hamamelis japonica, where it forms a spiny gall. Introduction of moth caterpillars into the galls elicited attacking behavior of aphid nymphs with their stylet. Although older nymphs sometimes attacked, first-instar nymphs were the main defenders. Immature and mature galls contained a large proportion of first-instar nymphs. Open galls still contained first-instar nymphs, but the proportion was… 
Defensive Nymphs of the Woolly Aphid Thoracaphis kashifolia (Hemiptera) on the Oak Quercus glauca
Aphid nymphs with enlarged fore- and mid-legs were found from woolly colonies of Thoracaphis kashifolia on leaves of the evergreen Quercus glauca in Japan and it was shown that they grasped an introduced moth larva with their legs and some inserted their stylets deep into the body.
Plant Manipulation by Gall-Forming Social Aphids for Waste Management
In conclusion, gall-forming aphids induce novel plant phenotypes to manage the waste problems by manipulating plant morphogenesis and physiology for their own sake.
First record of anti-predator behavior in the gall-forming aphid Mordwilkoja vagabunda
These synchronized, rhythmic movements may be anti-predator defense strategies comparable to the collective twitching and kicking response observed in colonies of Aphis nerii and other aphid species.
Buying time for colony mates: the anti-predatory function of soldiers in the eusocial aphid Ceratovacuna japonica (Homoptera, Hormaphidinae)
It is shown that soldiers can reduce the rate of predation on their colony mates without killing the predators, and a defensive strategy that delays predation may buy the soldiers’ colony mates time to reproduce or to escape from the predator.
An insect-induced novel plant phenotype for sustaining social life in a closed system
A sophisticated biological solution to the waste problem in the closed system is reported: the gall inner surface is specialized for absorbing water, whereby honeydew is promptly removed via the plant vascular system.
A Review of the Biology of Cerataphidini (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Hormaphidinae), Focusing Mainly on Their Life Cycles, Gall Formation, and Soldiers
The life cycles of cerataphidines are basically the same as those of the subfamily Eriosomatinae, but in tropical and subtropical regions their life cycles are not very rigidly tuned to seasonal changes in the climate if any.


Maternal death relaxes developmental inhibition in nymphal aphid defenders
This field experiment with Pemphigus obesinymphae, a North American gall–forming aphid with defensive first–instar nymphs, tests whether first–stadium duration is influenced by the death of the colony's fundatrix (mother), and adds a new layer of complexity to the understanding of social aphid systems.
Defenders in the North American aphidPemphigus obesinymphae
SummaryGall-inhabiting individuals of the aphidPemphigus obesinymphae act as defenders, protecting other colony members against attack by dipteran and neuropteran larvae that are the primary
Behavior and morphology of monomorphic soldiers from the aphid genus Pseudoregma (Cerataphidini, Hormaphididae): implications for the evolution of morphological castes in social aphids
The discovery of a novel soldier type in an undescribed species of Pseudoregma that is morphologically similar to P. bambucicola is reported, and the first example of a possible within-instar age polyethism in soldier-producing aphids is reported.
Enemy recognition and defence within trophobiotic associations with ants by the soldier caste of Pseudoregma sundanica (Homoptera : Aphidoidea)
The haemolymph of aphids being attacked by predators is perceived by the aphid soldiers after immediate contact and releases their defensive behaviour against the intruder and the same mechanism of releasing attacks against potential aphid predators could be demonstrated experimentally.
Geographic variation and evolution in the life cycle of the witch-hazel leaf gall aphid, Hormaphis hamamelidis
A preliminary phylogeny of the described species in the tribe Hormaphidini is constructed, proposing that the abbreviated life cycle is derived from the complex one in the case of these witchhazel gall aphids.
Ecological factors promoting the evolution of colony defense in aphids: computer simulations
  • S. Akimoto
  • Environmental Science
    Insectes Sociaux
  • 2005
Which life-historical traits have promoted the evolution of colony defense using two kinds of deterministic simulation models are examined, finding that a tendency in defense reported in pemphigid aphids was consistent with the prediction from the galling-aphid model.
  • D. SternW. Foster
  • Biology
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 1996
It is shown that the distribution of soldier production requires a minimum of six to nine evolutionary origins plus at least one loss, and an optimality model for soldier investment strategies is presented to help guide investigations of the ecological factors selecting for soldiers.
  • D. Stern
  • Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1998
A molecular phylogenetic analysis of 32 species of the Cerataphidini, including 10 species from the genera Ceratovacuna and Pseudoregma, suggests that horned soldiers evolved once and were lost once or twice and that bamboos were the ancestral secondary‐host plants.
A phylogenetic analysis of soldier evolution in the aphid family Hormaphididae
  • D. Stern
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1994
A mtDNA based phylogeny for the Hormaphididae is presented and the hypothesis that soldiers in the tribe Cerataphidini produced during two points in the life cycle represent independent origins are tested, and the results support this hypothesis.