Altruistic People Show No Self-Reference Effect in Memory

  title={Altruistic People Show No Self-Reference Effect in Memory},
  author={Takashi Nakao and Satoko Tokunaga and Masahiro Takamura and Hitomi Nashiwa and Shunsuke Hayashi and Makoto Miyatani},
  journal={The Journal of General Psychology},
  pages={29 - 41}
ABSTRACT The self-reference effect (SRE), by which encoding of information is done in a self-referential manner (e.g., “Does the word describe you?”), enhances subsequent memory performance. It is thought to reflect that self-reference is a highly practiced task in everyday life. Accordingly, it is expected that the types of tasks that produce memory enhancement vary according to individual differences of past experiences. On the basis of neuroimaging studies, we hypothesized that social… 
The Influence of Self-Referential Processing on Attentional Orienting in Frontoparietal Networks
The stimulus modulated subsequent attentional neural processes after being associated with the self as a cue, which indicates that this process may be triggered by self-reference to automatically and effectively capture information.
Altruism, Volunteering and Cognitive Performance Among Older Adults: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study
Altruism and volunteering were associated with cognitive tests, albeit in different ways, and altruism, but not volunteering, was associated with higher absolute score on these tests.
Altruistic behaviour, but not volunteering, has been associated with cognitive performance in community‐dwelling older persons
Whether altruistic behaviour and volunteering are associated with better cognitive function in active community‐dwelling older persons and if a person's altruistic character does so is evaluated.
A Qualitative Study of Buddhist Altruistic Behavior
Mahāyāna devotees assert that helping other people is the practice of the bodhisattva path. This qualitative inquiry explores how Buddhists apply the bodhisattva spirit in modern society. It


A Spontaneous Self-Reference Effect in Memory
It is suggested that the self-reference effect can occur spontaneously in the absence of explicit self-cues if the material to be learned automatically activates self-relevant information.
Self-memory biases in explicit and incidental encoding of trait adjectives
[The multidimensional property of the self and self-reference effect].
  • T. Horiuchi
  • Psychology
    Shinrigaku kenkyu : The Japanese journal of psychology
  • 1998
The results of two experiments suggest that the self-reference effect is due to the multidimensional property of self cognition.
The self-reference effect in memory: a meta-analysis.
A meta-analysis confirms the expected self-reference effect (SRE) in memory, with self-referent encoding strategies yielding superior memory relative to both semantic and other-referential encoding strategies.
The effects of self-reference versus other reference on the recall of traits and nouns
Although self-reference often facilitates recall, this effect is not always obtained, and the present experiments were designed to discover when self-reference produces better memory than other
Two Self-Reference Effects: The Importance of Distinguishing Between Self-Descriptiveness Judgments and Autobiographical Retrieval in Self-Referent Encoding
This research suggests that difficulties in demonstrating consistent effects of the self on recall and in specifying the processes involved in self-referent encoding stem partly from a failure to
[Self-reference effect in an independence/remember-know procedure].
Results suggested that the self-reference effect is due to intentional use of memory, and not for the automatic memory.
Elaboration, organization, and the self-reference effect in memory.
The experiments reported in this article challenge this interpretation of the self-reference effect by demonstrating that self-referent and semantic encodings produce virtually identical free recall levels if they are first equated for the amount of organization they encourage.
The Influences of Type of Self-knowledge and Stimuli on the Self-reference Effect
Using a descriptive task (e. g., “Does this word describe you?”), two experiments were carried out to investigate how self-knowledge and the type of stimuli (adjectives) affect the self-reference
Empathy-based helping: is it selflessly or selfishly motivated?
A substantial body of evidence collected by Batson and his associates has advanced the idea that pure (i.e., selfless) altruism occurs under conditions of empathy for a needy other. An egoistic