In Cameroon and most countries of tropical Africa where Phaeoramularia leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus is reported, a total yield loss of 50–100% is common. For effective control of this disease, it is imperative to understand how it originates, and which factors contribute to its development. To this end, the environmental and biological characteristics of each tree from 39 sites located in 13 citrus production basins in the humid zones of Cameroon were collected by means of a survey. Information was collected by interviewing heads of households, and by visual inspection of trees and their environment. The independent variable was severity of the disease while the dependent variables were environmental and biological characteristics. Climatic characteristics varied from one basin to another. The 13 citrus production basins were regrouped in five categories based on disease severity. Altitude, tree species and soil type were the main factors influencing the disease severity. Thus the higher is the altitude, the more important is the disease severity. Also, disease severity increased with increasing number of grape fruit, orange and pummelo trees. However, disease severity was lower on trees growing on volcanic soils as compared with the other soil types. Further analysis of these factors could lead to the development of a risk assessment model for Phaeoramularia leaf and fruit spot of citrus.