Altitude Training for the Marathon

@article{Chapman2007AltitudeTF,
  title={Altitude Training for the Marathon},
  author={Robert F. Chapman and Benjamin D. Levine},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
  year={2007},
  volume={37},
  pages={392-395}
}
For nearly 40 years, scientists and elite endurance athletes have been investigating the use of altitude in an effort to enhance exercise performance. While the results of many early studies on the use of altitude training for sea level performance enhancement have produced equivocal results, newer studies using the ‘live high, train low’ altitude training model have demonstrated significant improvements in red cell mass, maximal oxygen uptake, oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold, and 3000m… 
Classical altitude training
TLDR
The results of some uncontrolled studies indicate that sea‐level performance might be enhanced after altitude training also in elite athletes, and there is some evidence for an augmentation of total hemoglobin mass after classical altitude training with duration ≥3 weeks at an altitude ≥2000 m due to altitude acclimatization.
A Clinician Guide to Altitude Training for Optimal Endurance Exercise Performance at Sea Level.
TLDR
This brief review will offer the clinician a series of evidence-based best-practice guidelines on prealtitude and altitude training considerations, which can ultimately maximize performance improvement outcomes.
A Clinician Guide to Altitude Training for Optimal Endurance Exercise Performance at Sea Level.
TLDR
This brief review will offer the clinician a series of evidence-based best-practice guidelines on prealtitude and altitude training considerations, which can ultimately maximize performance improvement outcomes.
Hypoxic exposure to optimise altitude training adaptations in elite endurance athletes
TLDR
The purpose of this thesis was to investigate if additional hypoxic exposure around a “live high-train high” altitude training camp could maximise adaptations, and to examine the physiological and haematological responses to altitude training and hypoxic exposures.
Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols
TLDR
This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.
Dose-response modelling of total haemoglobin mass to hypoxic dose in elite speed skaters
TLDR
The model developed in the current study describes the time course of total haemoglobin mass during altitude exposure and post-altitude decline in elite speed skaters.
Timing of return from altitude training for optimal sea level performance.
TLDR
Evidence reviewed here suggests that the deacclimatization responses of hematological, ventilatory, and biomechanical factors with return to sea level likely interact to determine the best timing for competitive performance.
Effects of Individual Aerobic Performance on Finish Time in Mountain Running
TLDR
There is an increasing effect on both the finish time and the change of finish time with decreasing aerobic performance in mountain runners with the lowest VO2ATRace compared to those with the highest values of VO2atRace.
Effects of hypobaric Endurance Training on Graded Exercise Induced Lymphocyte Mobilization, Senescence and Their Surface Thiol Levels in Elite Male Athletes
TLDR
It can be concluded that HE has no additional benefits for elite athletes regarded to lymphocytes mobilization and senescence, however; it may render them to oxidative stress.
Performance of Kenyan athletes in mountain versus flat marathon running - An example in Switzerland
Harm, C., Knechtle, B., Rust, A.C., Rosemann, T., Lepers, R. & Onywera, V. (2013). Performance of Kenyan athletes in mountain versus flat marathon running - An example in Switzerland. J. Hum. Sport
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