Alternatives to Animal Experiments: Serving in the Middle Ground

Abstract

The origins of the Three Rs (reduction, refinement, replacement) concept of alternatives to animal experiments are briefly reviewed, and examples are given of achievements and grounds for hope in the application of the concept, as well as of causes for concern. Attention is then focused on validation, the process whereby test methods are independently… (More)

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Cite this paper

@inproceedings{Balls2009AlternativesTA, title={Alternatives to Animal Experiments: Serving in the Middle Ground}, author={Michael Balls}, year={2009} }