Alternatives for the treatment of infections caused by ESKAPE pathogens

@article{daRosa2020AlternativesFT,
  title={Alternatives for the treatment of infections caused by ESKAPE pathogens},
  author={Taci{\'e}li Fagundes da Rosa and Silvana Silveira Coelho and Vit{\'o}ria S. Foletto and Angelita Bottega and Marissa Bolson Serafin and Catrine de Souza Machado and La{\'i}sa Nunes Franco and Bruno Rafael de Paula and Rosmari H{\"o}rner},
  journal={Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics},
  year={2020},
  volume={45},
  pages={863 - 873}
}
The widespread use of antibiotics as therapeutic agents caused an increase of multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR) appearance. Regarding MDRs, we highlight the Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp.., which are the ESKAPE group. 

Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative ESKAPE Pathogens from a Tertiary-Care Hospital: Prevalence and Risk Factors

Infections with MDR Gram-negative ESKAPE organisms have an alarming magnitude in this institution, and Continued vigilance by the involved health-care workers, stringent compliance to the infection control guidelines, and effective implementation of the antimicrobial stewardship programs are critical measures to decrease the burden of this health problem.

Repositioning of Disulfiram in Association with Vancomycin Against Enterococcus spp. MDR and XDR

It is suggested that the redirection of disulfiram may be promising in the treatment of infections caused by VRE, since it was able to potentiate the activity of vancomycin against the strains, being able to act as an adjuvant in cases of serious infection caused by Enterococcus.

Alternatives to Conventional Antibiotic Therapy: Potential Therapeutic Strategies of Combating Antimicrobial-Resistance and Biofilm-Related Infections

The difficulties in combating biofilm formation and AMR are introduced, and novel alternatives to antibiotics such as metal nanoparticles and quaternary ammonium compounds, chitosan and its derivatives, antimicrobial peptides, stimuli-responsive materials, phage therapy and other therapeutic strategies are discussed.

Virulent and multidrug‐resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from clinical samples in Balochistan

Multidrug resistance and virulence potential in K. pneumoniae are converting these nosocomial pathogens into superbugs and making its management harder, according to this study.

Cytotoxic screening and antibacterial activity of Withaferin A

Withaferin A was effective, as evidenced by its cytotoxic activity in tumor cell lines, enhanced ROS production in tumor cells and bactericidal and antibiofilm activity.

References

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This review summarized the known antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of ESKAPE pathogens to aid in the prediction of underlying or even unknown mechanisms of resistance, which could be applied to other emerging multidrug resistant pathogens.

Photoinactivation of ESKAPE pathogens: overview of novel therapeutic strategy.

Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation is a therapeutic option used in the treatment of infectious diseases based on a combination of a photosensitizer, light and oxygen to remove highly metabolically active cells.

Synergy between conventional antibiotics and anti-biofilm peptides in a murine, sub-cutaneous abscess model caused by recalcitrant ESKAPE pathogens

It was shown that synthetic peptides can be used in conjunction with the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, meropenem, erythromycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin to improve the treatment outcome of murine cutaneous abscesses caused by clinical hard-to-treat pathogens.

Non-Antimicrobial Drugs: Etodolac as a Possible Antimicrobial or Adjuvant Agent Against ESKAPE Pathogens

Already approved drugs in terms of pharmacokinetics and safety may deploy faster solutions for antimicrobial therapy against priority pathogens, particularly regarding NSAIDs, anti-biofilm formation and top priority pathogens.

Repurposing Non-Antimicrobial Drugs and Clinical Molecules to Treat Bacterial Infections.

Only ebselen (EB) and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd), showed bactericidal activity, in an applicable clinical range, against multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus isolates including MRSA, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, and vancomYcin-intermediate S.Aureus (VISA).

Norfloxacin salts of carboxylic acids curtail planktonic and biofilm mode of growth in ESKAPE pathogens

To enhance the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of norfloxacin against the planktonic and biofilm mode of growth in ESKAPE pathogens using chemically modified norfloxacin salts.

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Insight is provided into the potential of actinomycetes as producers of drugs with efficacy against clinical isolates that have emerged recently and also underlined the importance of targeting a specific pathogen.

Celecoxib Enhances the Efficacy of Low-Dose Antibiotic Treatment against Polymicrobial Sepsis in Mice and Clinical Isolates of ESKAPE Pathogens

This non-traditional treatment strategy might be effective in clinic to reduce the dose of antibiotic to treat drug-resistant bacterial infections.

Federal funding for the study of antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pathogens: no ESKAPE.

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The research agenda of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) for antimicrobial resistance is detailed, indicating that NIAID funding of antimicrobial research has grown considerably over the past decade, now totaling more than $800 million annually.