Alternative seed-handling strategies in primates: seed-spitting by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

@article{Corlett2004AlternativeSS,
  title={Alternative seed-handling strategies in primates: seed-spitting by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)},
  author={Richard T. Corlett and Peter W. Lucas},
  journal={Oecologia},
  year={2004},
  volume={82},
  pages={166-171}
}
SummaryThe seeds in fruits consumed by primates may be chewed and digested, swallowed and defecated intact, or separated from the flesh and spat out. We show by a combination of close field observations and experiments with caged animals, that long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have a remarkably low threshold of 3–4 mm for swallowing seeds and also that wild macaques rarely break them. The seeds of 69% of the ripe fruit species eaten are spat out intact or cleaned outside the mouth and… 
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