Endogenous Human MDM2-C Is Highly Expressed in Human Cancers and Functions as a p53-Independent Growth Activator
MDM2 has been characterized as a protein that binds to and facilitates degradation of the tumor suppressor p53. Interestingly, more than 40 different splice variants of MDM2 transcripts have been identified both in tumors and normal tissues, and the majority of these variants do not contain sequence encoding the p53 binding site. This review describes the different splice forms, the tissues in which they have been identified, and their association with tumor progression and prognosis. In addition, we discuss the potential functions of these variants and how they interact with full-length MDM2 protein.